Leishmanicidal activity of Himatanthus sucuuba latex against Leishmania amazonensis
ABSTRACT Himatanthus sucuuba (HsL) latex exhibited a potent leishmanicidal activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. HsL inhibited intracellular amastigote growth in a dose-dependent manner (IC50 = 15.7 µg/mL). Moreover, HsL increased nitric oxide (NO) and Tumor Nuclear Factor-α (TNF-α) and decreased Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) production in macrophages. As assessed by plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity, HsL showed low toxicity for host macrophages. HsL in vivo was active by the oral route, reducing the parasite load in established footpad lesions after only five doses. In summary, these findings support HsL as an interesting candidate for further evaluations regarding its potential application as a therapeutical agent against Leishmania.
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ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and causes a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from self-healing cutaneous lesions to the fatal visceral form. The use of pentavalent antimony, the mainstay of therapy of Leishmaniasis is now limited by its toxicity and alarming increase in unresponsiveness, especially in the Indian subcontinent. Furthermore, other anti-leishmanial drugs are unaffordable in many affected countries and as vaccination based approaches have not yet proved to be effective, chemotherapy remains the only alternative, emphasizing the need for identifying novel drug targets. In this review, we have described the different host immune signaling pathways that could be considered as potential drug targets for Leishmania chemotherapy.International immunopharmacology 08/2011; 11(11):1668-79. · 2.21 Impact Factor