BackgroundAdults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) represent a small, but challenging sub-group of patients within Ontario's mental health care system. However, few studies have documented the clinical characteristics of this population and examined how such individuals differ from other psychiatric patients, with or without intellectual disabilities (ID).MethodA secondary analysis of data from the 2003 Comprehensive Assessment Projects from three psychiatric hospitals in Ontario was conducted to describe patients with ASD and ID and to determine how their profile compared to other hospital users.ResultsTwenty-three patients with ASD and ID were matched on gender and patient status (inpatient/outpatient) to individuals with and without ID. Individuals with ASD and ID were similar in terms of demographics to patients with and without ID. However, individuals with ASD and ID were younger, spent more days in hospital and were less likely to have a psychotic disorder diagnosis than both patients with and without ID. Inpatients with ASD and ID were recommended for a higher level of care than hospital service users without ID.ConclusionsClearly, this small sub-group of individuals within the hospital population has high clinical needs that are not always well met.
"Peacock et al. (2012) found that 47 % of children with ASD had at least one selected co-occurring condition, with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) the most common, at 30 %. Children with ASD and intellectual disability (ID) incurred expenditures 2.7 times higher than did children with ASD and no co-occurring conditions. Lunsky et al. (2009) reported that inpatients with ASD and ID were recommended for a higher level of care than hospital service users without ID. However, the families of children diagnosed with ASD comorbid with ADHD or ID reported the highest levels of dissatisfaction across all health care quality variables and reported the greatest impact on the family's financial situation (Zablotsky et al. 2014). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper aims to examine health care utilization and expenditure in the provision of medical care to understand the medical care burden of children with autism spectrum disorders based on recent literature reviews. This article reviews the recent literature in Medline, PubMed, and Google by using key terms that are relevant to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and health care (medical care) utilization, medical care costs, and expenditures. I also hand-searched the reference lists of all of the included articles and recent narrative and systematic reviews related to medical care utilization and the costs of ASD to identify potentially relevant articles. The literature on medical care utilization and expenditures related to ASD highlights the fact that the disorder imposes high medical care burdens on families and on society. It is necessary to initiate appropriate, comprehensive, and accessible medical care services for individuals with ASD, particularly for those with comorbid conditions. Future studies should examine the impact of such improvements in the management of children with ASD on medical care utilization and costs.
"Extensive information exists on the mental health needs and the prevalence of specific mental illnesses among persons with DD from the United States and several European countries (e.g.,          ). However, the literature on the mental health needs of persons with DD in Canada remains very limited          . Most Canadian research has focused on hospitalizations for mental health or psychiatric disorders [16, 17, 19–21, 23–25] and has centered on the Canadian province of Ontario [19–21, 23–25]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study Objective. To estimate and compare the prevalence of dementia and depression among adults with and without developmental disabilities (DDs). Methods. We linked data from several provincial administrative databases to identify persons with DDs. We matched cases with DD with persons without DD as to sex, age, and place of residence. We estimated the prevalence of dementia and depression and compared the two groups using the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) technique. Results. The estimated prevalence of depression and dementia among younger adults (20-54) and older adults (50+) with DD was significantly higher than the estimated rates for the matched non-DD group (Depression: younger adults: RR = 2.96 (95% CI 2.59-3.39); older adults: RR = 2.65 (95% CI 1.84-3.81)), (Dementia: younger adults: RR = 4.01 (95% CI 2.72-5.92); older adults: RR = 4.80 (95% CI 2.48-9.31)). Conclusion. Significant disparities exist in mental health between persons with and without DDs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the relationship between challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (N=124) as compared to adults with ID only (N=562). All participants were first time referrals to specialist mental health services and were living in community settings. Clinical diagnoses were based on ICD-10 criteria and presence of challenging behavior was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS-B). The analyses showed that ASD diagnosis was significantly associated with male gender, younger age and lower level of ID. Challenging behavior was about four times more likely in adults with ASD as compared to non-ASD adults. In those with challenging behavior, there were significant differences in co-morbid psychopathology between ASD and non-ASD adults. However, after controlling for level of ID, gender and age, there was no association between co-morbid psychopathology and presence of challenging behavior. Overall, the results suggest that presence of challenging behavior is independent from co-morbid psychopathology in adults with ID and ASD.
Research in developmental disabilities 11/2009; 31(2):362-6. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2009.10.009 · 4.41 Impact Factor
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