LY393615, a novel neuronal Ca2+ and Na+ channel blocker with neuroprotective effects in models of in vitro and in vivo cerebral ischemia
ABSTRACT In the present studies we have examined the effects of a new calcium channel blocker, LY393615 ((N-Butyl-[5,5-bis-(4-fluorophenyl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl]methylamine hydrochloride, NCC1048) in a model of hypoxia–hypoglycaemia in vitro and in a gerbil model of global and in two rat models of focal cerebral ischaemia in vivo. Results indicated that LY393615 protected against hypoxia–hypoglycaemic insults in brain slices and also provided significant protection against ischaemia-induced hippocampal damage in gerbil global cerebral ischaemia when dosed at 10, 12.5 (P<0.05) or 15 mg/kg i.p. (P<0.01) 30 min before and 2 h 30 min after occlusion. The compound penetrated the brain well after a 15 mg/kg i.p. dose and had a half-life of 2.5 h. In further studies LY393615 was protective 1 h post-occlusion when administered at 15 mg/kg i.p. followed by 2 doses of 5 mg/kg i.p. 2 and 3 h later. LY393615 dosed at 15 mg/kg i.p. followed by 2 further doses of 5 mg/kg i.p. (2 and 3 h later) also produced a significant reduction in the infarct volume following Endothelin-1 (Et-1) middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat when administration was initiated immediately (P<0.01) or 1 h (P<0.05) after occlusion. The compound was also evaluated in the intraluminal monofilament model of focal ischaemia. The animals had the middle cerebral artery occluded for 2 h, and 15 min after reperfusion LY393615 was administered at 15 mg/kg i.p. followed by 2 mg/kg/h i.v. infusion for 6 h. There was no reduction in infarct volume using this dosing protocol. In conclusion, in the present studies we have reported that a novel calcium channel blocker, LY393615, with good bioavailability protects against neuronal damage caused by hypoxia–hypoglycaemia in vitro and both global and focal cerebral ischaemia in vivo. The compound is neuroprotective when administered post-occlusion and may therefore be a useful anti-ischaemic agent.
- Handbook of Contemporary Neuropharmacology, 03/2007; , ISBN: 9780470101001
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ABSTRACT: Estrogen is a powerful endogenous and exogenous neuroprotective agent in animal models of brain injury, including focal cerebral ischemia. Although this protection has been demonstrated in several different treatment and injury paradigms, it has not been demonstrated in focal cerebral ischemia induced by intraparenchymal endothelin-1 injection, a model with many advantages over other models of experimental focal ischemia. Reproductively mature female Sprague–Dawley rats were ovariectomized and divided into placebo and estradiol-treated groups. Two weeks later, halothane-anesthetized rats underwent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion by interparenchymal stereotactic injection of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin 1 (180 pmoles/2 μl) near the middle cerebral artery. Laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) revealed similar reductions in cerebral blood flow in both groups. Animals were behaviorally evaluated before, and 2 days after, stroke induction, and infarct size was evaluated. In agreement with other models, estrogen treatment significantly reduced infarct size evaluated by both TTC and Fluoro-Jade staining and behavioral deficits associated with stroke. Stroke size was significantly correlated with LDF in both groups, suggesting that cranial perfusion measures can enhance success in this model.Neuroscience Letters 11/2008; · 2.06 Impact Factor
Article: P/Q-type calcium channel modulators.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: P/Q-type calcium channels are high-voltage-gated calcium channels contributing to vesicle release at synaptic terminals. A number of neurological diseases have been attributed to malfunctioning of P/Q channels, including ataxia, migraine and Alzheimer's disease. To date, only two specific P/Q-type blockers are known: both are peptides deriving from the spider venom of Agelenopsis aperta, ω-agatoxins. Other peptidic calcium channel blockers with activity at P/Q channels are available, albeit with less selectivity. A number of low molecular weight compounds modulate P/Q-type currents with different characteristics, and some exhibit a peculiar bidirectional pattern of modulation. Interestingly, there are a number of therapeutics in clinical use, which also show P/Q channel activity. Because selectivity as well as the exact mode of action is different between all P/Q-type channel modulators, the interpretation of clinical and experimental data is complicated and needs a comprehensive understanding of their target profile. The situation is further complicated by the fact that information on potency varies vastly in the literature, which may be the result of different experimental systems, conditions or the splice variants of the P/Q channel. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the compounds available that affect the P/Q-type channel and should help with the interpretation of results of in vitro experiments and animal models. It also aims to explain some clinical observations by implementing current knowledge about P/Q channel modulation of therapeutically used non-selective drugs. Chances and challenges of the development of P/Q channel-selective molecules are discussed.British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2012; 167(4):741-59. · 5.07 Impact Factor