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    ABSTRACT: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neurotrophic factor expressed in small dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. IGF-1 promotes neuronal survival by activating its receptor (IGF-1R). Whether IGF-1 and its signaling pathways influence the expression of tyrosine kinase receptors TrkA, TrkB and TrkC in DRG neurons remains unknown. In the present study, primary cultured DRG neurons were used to determine the effects of IGF-1 on TrkA, TrkB and TrkC expression. The involvement of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and the effects of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways on IGF-1 were also evaluated. DRG neurons were cultured for 48h and then exposed to IGF-1, PD98059 plus IGF-1, LY294002 plus IGF-1, and PD98059 plus LY294002 plus IGF-1 for an additional 24h. The DRG neurons were continuously exposed to culture medium as a control. All cultures were then processed for detection of mRNA levels of TrkA, TrkB and TrkC using real-time PCR analysis. Protein levels of TrkA, TrkB and TrkC were detected using a Western blot assay. The expression of TrkA, TrkB and TrkC in situ was determined by a fluorescent labeling technique. The levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) were detected using a Western blot assay. The results indicated that in primary cultured DRG neurons, IGF-1 increased the expression of TrkA and TrkB and their mRNAs but not TrkC or its mRNA. Neither the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 nor the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 alone blocked the effect of IGF-1, but the use of both inhibitors together was effective. IGF-1 may play an important role in regulating the expression of different Trk receptors in DRG neurons through the ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. These results suggest that IGF-1 signaling might be a potential target on modifying distinct Trk receptor-mediated biological effects.
    Brain research bulletin 09/2012; 90(1). DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.09.011 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In today's competitive market, mobile service providers are very keen on improving the customer satisfaction by providing personalized services. Recommending recharge packs to the subscribers that suits their personal profile is an important such personalized service. But a solution to this problem is not that simple as it requires careful analysis of the subscribers' usage behavior and involves very large volume of data generated by the subscribers' frequent interaction with the telecom network. Also, this solution needs to ensure a fine balance between customer satisfaction and profitability of service providers. This paper discusses about an adaptive recommendation model which overcomes various deficiencies associated with existing solutions. The model recommends suitable recharge packs to subscribers based on their usage history and affordability. Further, it accommodates a configurable fairness parameter that ensures a balance between the profitability factor, conversion probability and relevance of the recommendations. Due to the sheer volume of the data involved, the model is implemented using a distributed framework. The validity of the model is evaluated on the basis of statistical properties and conversion factor.
    Communications (NCC), 2013 National Conference on; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell therapy may provide a therapeutic method for the replacement and regeneration of damaged neurons of the central nervous system. However, neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural precursor cells (NPCs) are especially vulnerable after transplantation due to a lack of sufficient growth factors at the transplant site. Electrical stimulation (ES) has recently been found to participate in the regulation of cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, and migration, but its underlying anti-apoptotic effects remain unclear. This study investigated the protective effects of biphasic electrical stimulation (BES) on olfactory bulb NPCs against growth factor-deprived apoptosis, examining the survival and apoptotic features of the cells. Differentiation was assessed by neuronal and glial markers. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (BDNF)-PI3K/Akt pathway activation was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. The chemical inhibitor wortmannin was used to inhibit the PI3K/Akt pathway. BES exerts a protective effect against growth factor-deprived apoptosis in the NPCs. BES enhanced cell survival and decreased the apoptotic/necrotic rate. Expression of phosphorylated Akt and BDNF secretion increased with BES for 12 h. Furthermore, the protective effects of BES were inhibited by blocking PI3K/AKT signalling. These results suggest that BES prevents growth factor-deprived apoptosis through the BDNF-PI3K/Akt signalling. This work strengthens the opinion that BES may be used as an auxiliary strategy for improving cell survival and preventing cell apoptosis in stem cell-based transplantation therapy.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 08/2013; 238(8):951-9. DOI:10.1177/1535370213494635 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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