Different nitric oxide synthase inhibitors cause rapid and differential alterations in the ligand-binding capacity of transmitter receptors in the rat cerebral cortex
ABSTRACT Inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis reduce postlesional neuronal death during reperfusion injury by reducing the NO-mediated increase in excitatory neurotransmitter-release. The protective effects of various NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors differ due to their isoform selectivity. The effects of NO-mediated excessive neurotransmitter supply are transmitted via specific neurotransmitter receptors expressed by the target cells. We report changes in the ligand-binding of different excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter-receptors studied by in vitro receptor autoradiography after in vivo-application of NOS-inhibitors. Since the constitutively expressed neuronal NOS-I is area-specifically distributed within the rat cortex, numerous cortical areas were studied in non-lesioned rats, in order to analyze the area-specific effects of NOS-inhibitors. The results showed that the NOS-I-specific inhibitor 7-nitroindazole increased binding of 3H-muscimol, 3H-pirenzepine and 3H-kainate, whereas the less isoform-specific, general NOS-inhibitor L-nitroarginine increased binding of 3H-muscimol and 3H-AMPA in most cortical areas, leaving 3H-kainate binding almost unchanged. The water soluble L-nitroarginine-methylester caused similar effects to those of L-nitroarginine which changed over a period of chronic treatment. The inhibitory GABAA-receptors were increased after NOS-inhibition in most cortical areas, whereas binding of 3H-Oxotremorine-M (acetylcholine receptors), 3H-MK-801 (NMDA-receptors) and 3H-AMPA (AMPA receptors) was affected differently among the cortical areas. Strongest alterations of ligand-binding capacity after administration of NOS-inhibitors were seen in cortical areas known to contain the highest packing densities of NOS-I-positive interneurons such as the piriform and entorhinal cortices, indicating that, in normal animals, neurotransmission and probably cognitive information processing would be affected by the pharmacological modulation of nitric oxide production.
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ABSTRACT: The involvement of NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors in the induction of superoxide production in the rat brain was examined after intrahippocampal injection of kainate, a non-NMDA receptor agonist; kainate plus CNQX, a selective AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist; or kainate plus APV, a selective NMDA receptor antagonist. The measurements took place at different times in the ipsi- and contralateral hippocampus, forebrain cortex, striatum, and cerebellum homogenates. The used glutamate antagonists both ensured sufficient neuroprotection in the sense of lowering superoxide production and raising MnSOD levels, but in the mechanisms and time dynamics of their effects were different. Our findings suggest that NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors are differentially involved in superoxide production. UDC 612.815 612.82.Archives of Biological Sciences. 01/2005;
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in vivo, on nitrite concentration after kainic acid injection unilaterally into the CA3 region of the rat hippocampus. The accumulation of nitrite, the stable metabolite of NO, was measured by the Griess reaction at different times in hippocampus, forebrain cortex, striatum, and cerebellum homogenates. 7-nitroindazole can effectively inhibit NO synthesis in rat brain after kainate-induced neurotoxicity and suppressed nitrite accumulation. The present results suggest that neuronal NO synthase inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of neurological diseases in which excitotoxic mechanisms play a role.Archives of Biological Sciences. 01/2005;
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ABSTRACT: Stimulation of glutamate receptors induces neuronal nitric oxide (NO) release, which in turn modulates glutamate transmission. The involvement of ionotropic glutamate NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors in induction of NO production in the rat brain was examined after injection of kainate, a non-NMDA receptor agonist; kainate plus 6-cyano- 7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), a selective AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist; or kainate plus 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV), a selective NMDA receptor antagonist. Competitive glutamate receptor antagonists were injected with kainate unilaterally into the CA3 region of the rat hippocampus. The accumulation of nitrite, the stable metabolite of NO, was measured by the Griess reaction at different times (5 min, 15 min, 2 h, 48 h, and 7 days) in hippocampus, forebrain cortex, striatum, and cerebellum homogenates. The used glutamate antagonists APV and CNQX both provided sufficient neuroprotection in the sense of reducing nitrite concentrations, but with different mechanisms and time dynamics. Our findings suggest that NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptors are differentially involved in nitric oxide production.Archives of Biological Sciences. 01/2007;