Inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis reduce postlesional neuronal death during reperfusion injury by reducing the NO-mediated increase in excitatory neurotransmitter-release. The protective effects of various NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors differ due to their isoform selectivity. The effects of NO-mediated excessive neurotransmitter supply are transmitted via specific neurotransmitter receptors expressed by the target cells. We report changes in the ligand-binding of different excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter-receptors studied by in vitro receptor autoradiography after in vivo-application of NOS-inhibitors. Since the constitutively expressed neuronal NOS-I is area-specifically distributed within the rat cortex, numerous cortical areas were studied in non-lesioned rats, in order to analyze the area-specific effects of NOS-inhibitors. The results showed that the NOS-I-specific inhibitor 7-nitroindazole increased binding of 3H-muscimol, 3H-pirenzepine and 3H-kainate, whereas the less isoform-specific, general NOS-inhibitor L-nitroarginine increased binding of 3H-muscimol and 3H-AMPA in most cortical areas, leaving 3H-kainate binding almost unchanged. The water soluble L-nitroarginine-methylester caused similar effects to those of L-nitroarginine which changed over a period of chronic treatment. The inhibitory GABAA-receptors were increased after NOS-inhibition in most cortical areas, whereas binding of 3H-Oxotremorine-M (acetylcholine receptors), 3H-MK-801 (NMDA-receptors) and 3H-AMPA (AMPA receptors) was affected differently among the cortical areas. Strongest alterations of ligand-binding capacity after administration of NOS-inhibitors were seen in cortical areas known to contain the highest packing densities of NOS-I-positive interneurons such as the piriform and entorhinal cortices, indicating that, in normal animals, neurotransmission and probably cognitive information processing would be affected by the pharmacological modulation of nitric oxide production.
"In this study, we demonstrate that the inhibitor of nNOS (7-NI) and inhibitor of iNOS (AMT) can increase the survived neurons in hippocampal CA1 region. Bidmon reported that NOS inhibitors could increase 3 H-muscimol binding to GABA A receptors (Bidmon et al. 1999). The upregulation of inhibitory neurotransmitter binding may account for the neuroprotective effect of the NOS inhibitors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from l-arginine by NO synthases, is a small endogenous free radical with multiple functions. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway plays a critical role in mediating apoptosis in cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. In this study, we found that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) can decrease the damage of hippocampal neurons induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Our current study demonstrates that SNP can suppress the phosphorylation of JNK3 by suppressing the increased S-nitrosylation of JNK3 induced by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. In contrast, dithiothreitol reversed the effect of SNP on S-nitrosylation of JNK3. Furthermore, the inhibitor of nNOS (7-NI) and the inhibitor of iNOS (AMT) can decrease JNK3 phosphorylation through decreasing S-nitrosylation of JNK3. Our data suggest that endogenous NO synthesized by NO synthases can increase JNK3 phosphorylation by means of S-nitrosylation during global ischemia/reperfusion in rat hippocampus. However, the exogenous NO (SNP) can reverse the effect of endogenous NO by inhibiting S-nitrosylation of JNK3. Together, these results suggest that the exogenous NO may provide a new clue for stroke therapy.
Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2008; 106(4):1952-63. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05531.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
"Type of nNOS has been detected in the several parts of the brain (Torreilles et al., 1999). Cortical areas are also known to contain the highest packing densities of nNOS-positive interneurons such as the piriform and entorhinal cortices (Bidmon et al., 1999). Contradictory roles for NO in the development and pathogenesis of seizures have been suggested (Garthwaite, 1991; Manzoni et al., 1992; Mulsch et al., 1994; Ayyildiz et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was conducted to identify the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the anticonvulsant effects of pyridoxine hydrochloride on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. A single microinjection of penicillin (500 units) into the left sensorimotor cortex induced epileptiform activity within 2-4 min, progressing to full seizure activity lasting about 3-5h. Thirty minutes after penicillin injection, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg of pyridoxine hydrochloride was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.). Pyridoxine significantly reduced the frequency of penicillin-induced epileptiform activity. A low dose of pyridoxine (40 mg/kg) was the most effective in reducing both the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform activity. The effect of systemic administration of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, non-selective N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), selective neuronal NOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) and NO substrate, L-arginine on anticonvulsive effects of pyridoxine was investigated. The administration of L-arginine (500 mg/kg, i.p.) and 7-NI (25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased the frequency of epileptiform electrocorticographical (ECoG) activity while administration of L-NAME (60 mg/kg, i.p.) and the inactive form of arginine (D-arginine) did not influence it. The administration of L-NAME (60 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min before pyridoxine (40 mg/kg i.p.) application reversed the anticonvulsant effects of pyridoxine whereas 7-NI (25 and 50 mg/kg, i.p.) did not influence it. The same dose of its inactive enantiomer N(G)-nitro-D-arginine methyl ester (d-NAME) failed to reverse the anticonvulsant effects of pyridoxine. The administration of L-arginine (500 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the frequency of epileptiform ECoG activity in the pyridoxine administered group. L-arginine did not reverse the anticonvulsant effect of 7-NI in the penicillin and pyridoxine administered groups. The results of present study indicate that the inhibitory effect on the anticonvulsant activity of pyridoxine against penicillin-induced epileptiform activity was produced by L-NAME, not by 7-NI, and is probably not related to the decrease of NOS activity in the brain.
Epilepsy Research 09/2007; 76(1):49-59. DOI:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2007.06.011 · 2.02 Impact Factor
"In the present study we did not observe an effect of NOS inhibition on D2 and mACh receptor binding . Some NOS inhibitors can alter the binding capacity of neurotransmitter receptors ( Bidmon et al . , 1999 ) and increase the binding at NMDA and AMPA receptors . We did not study the involvement of the glutamatergic system in the present study where NOS inhibition may have more profound effects on glutamate receptors . Our data shows that l - NA did not effect the specific binding of QNB or spiperone to mACh ( hippocampus and cortex ) and D"
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cholinergic and dopaminergic systems are involved in spatial memory and are modulated by nitric oxide (NO); NO has well documented effects on place learning in rodents. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of NOS inhibition on place learning in the water maze and to evaluate the relationships between NOS inhibition, learning performance, dopamine (DA) D2 and muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received the NOS inhibitor Nomega-Nitro-l-Arginine (l-NA), or saline and were trained in the water maze. Rats that were not trained, but received the same treatments were also included. Following treatments with or without water maze training, [3H]-QNB and [3H]-spiperone binding in cortex, striatum and hippocampus were determined to assess the effects of NOS inhibition and/or learning on DA D2 and mACh receptor regulation. The overall results of the present study showed that: (1) NOS inhibition impairs performance in the MWM; (2) NOS inhibition does not affect specific binding to DA D2 (striatum and hippocampus) and mACh (cortex and hippocampus) receptors; (3) MWM training lowers D2 and mACh receptor binding in cortical regions.
Ghadeer Suaifan, Mayadah Shehadeh, Hebah Al-Ijel, Khuloud Al-Jamal, Mutasem Taha
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