Biotechnological conversion of bio-diesel derived waste glycerol into added-value compounds by higher fungi: Production of biomass, single cell oil and oxalic acid

Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Food Science and Technology, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
Industrial Crops and Products (Impact Factor: 2.84). 03/2010; 31(2):407-416. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.12.011


Waste bio-diesel derived glycerol was used as the sole carbon source by higher fungi; two Lentinula edodes strains were flask cultured in carbon-limited conditions and displayed satisfactory growth in media presenting weak agitation, pH 4.0 and temperature 25 °C. Maximum biomass of 5.2 g/l was produced. Mycelia were synthesized, containing around 0.1 g of fat per g of biomass, with linoleic acid (Δ9,12C18:2) being the principal cellular fatty acid produced. Two Aspergillus niger strains were grown in nitrogen-limited flask cultures with constant nitrogen and two different initial glycerol concentrations into the medium. In 250-ml flask cultures, large-sized pellets were developed, in contrast with the trials performed in 2-l flasks. Nitrogen limitation led to oxalic acid secretion and intra-cellular lipid accumulation; in any case, sequential production of lipid and oxalic acid was observed. Initially, nitrogen limitation led to lipid accumulation. Thereafter, accumulated lipid was re-consumed and oxalic acid, in significant quantities, was secreted into the medium. In large-sized pellets, higher quantities of intra-cellular total lipid and lower quantities of oxalic acid were produced and vice versa. Maximum quantities of oxalic acid up to 20.5–21.5 g/l and lipid up to 3.1–3.5 g/l (corresponding to 0.41–0.57 g of fat per g of biomass) were produced. Lipid was mainly composed of oleic (Δ9C18:1) and linoleic (Δ9,12C18:2) acids.

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    • "Thus, the additional approach of transforming crude glycerol to more valuable chemicals, such as propanediol [18] [19], synthesis gas [20e22], acrylonitrile [23] [24] or liquid fuels [25] [26], since it is a molecule rich in functionalities with three hydroxyl (eOH) groups [27], is of increasing interest. A diverse array of processes to transform glycerol into more valuable chemicals have been developed , such as pyrolysis [28] [29], gasification [30e32], selective oxidation [33e35], biological processes [36] [37], esterification and acetylation [38e40] and hydrolysis [41e45]. However, the conversion of crude glycerol to added-value compounds by electrochemical approach has not been sufficiently reported in the previous literature. "
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    ABSTRACT: The enrichment of crude glycerol (29.8 wt.%) from a biodiesel production plant and its subsequent electrochemical conversion under a galvanostatic mode to added-value compounds was successfully performed at a laboratory scale. The optimal solvent-extraction based enrichment of the crude glycerol, after the acid pre-treatment to remove most free fatty acids and salts, was found using n-propanol:pre-treated crude glycerol at volume ratio of 2, attaining 97.9% glycerol. The effects of the initial glycerol solution pH (1, 7 or 11), type of electrode (platinum (Pt), titanium-coated ruthenium oxide (Ti/RuO2) or stainless steel (SS)) and applied current density (0.08–0.27 A/cm2) were explored. Using a galvanostatic mode, the enriched crude glycerol could be converted to added-value products, such as ethylene glycol, acetol, glycidol, acrolein, 1,2-propanediol (PD) and 1,3-PD. A Pt electrode, initial glycerol solution pH of 1 and current density of 0.14 A/cm2 were found to be optimal giving a complete conversion of 0.3 M glycerol within 14 h with a total product yield of 68.7%. However, each specific product had a different optimal applied current density and electrolysis time. Finally, a simplified diagram showing the possible major reaction pathways of glycerol conversion by this electrochemical conversion over a Pt electrode was presented.
    Renewable Energy 02/2015; 74:227–236. DOI:10.1016/j.renene.2014.08.008 · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    • "A large group of microorganisms is capable of assimilating glycerol as a carbon source in the synthesis of many useful products, such as 1,3-PD, ethanol, hydrogen, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and organic acids (Amaral et al. 2009; da Silva et al. 2009; André et al. 2010; Chatzifragkou et al. 2011a, b, c). A number of microorganisms can grow on glycerol, including Actinobacillus succinogenes, Aspergillus niger, Blakeslea trispora, Burkholderia sp., Chlorella protothecoides, Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium buturicum, Clostridium pasteurianum, Cunninghamella echinulata, Cupriavidus necator, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Gluconobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera cryocrescens, Lentinula edodes, Mortierella ramanniana, Mucor sp., Pseudomonas oleovorans, Rhodotorula glutinis, Schizochytrium limacinum, Staphylococcus caseolyticus, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Zobellella denitrificans (Petitdemange et al. 1995; González-Pajuelo et al. 2004; Hirschmann et al. 2005; Ito et al. 2005; Mu et al. 2006; Rymowicz et al. 2006, 2009; Fakas et al. 2008; Mantzouridou et al. 2008; Volpato et al. 2008; Cavalheiro et al. 2009; Habe et al. 2009; Rywińska et al. 2009; André et al. 2010; Andreeßen et al. 2010; Chatzifragkou et al. 2010; Chee et al. 2010; Ibrahim and Steinbüchel 2010; Liang et al. 2010; Ashby et al. 2011; Choi et al. 2011; O’Grady and Morgan 2011; Saenge et al. 2011; Vlysidis et al. 2011; Bellou et al. 2012; Metsoviti et al. 2012; Venkataramanan et al. 2012; Wilkens et al. 2012). Table 1 presents a number of the microorganisms that are able to convert crude glycerol to commercially useful metabolites as well as transform the main impurities of this raw material.. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glycerol is a valuable raw material for the production of industrially useful metabolites. Among many promising applications for the use of glycerol is its bioconversion to high value-added compounds, such as 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD), succinate, ethanol, propionate, and hydrogen, through microbial fermentation. Another method of waste material utilization is the application of crude glycerol in blends with other wastes (e.g., tomato waste hydrolysate). However, crude glycerol, a by-product of biodiesel production, has many impurities which can limit the yield of metabolites. In this mini-review we summarize the effects of crude glycerol impurities on various microbial fermentations and give an overview of the metabolites that can be synthesized by a number of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms when cultivated on glycerol.
    Annals of Microbiology 09/2014; 64(3). DOI:10.1007/s13213-013-0767-x · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    • "As far as crude glycerol is concerned, its biotransformation into (high) added-value products through microbial fermentations is considered as one of the most promising valorization means (Xiu and Zeng, 2008). A variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms are known for their ability to assimilate glycerol as the sole or supplementary carbon source and synthesize a plethora of metabolic products, such as organic acids (André et al., 2010; Vlysidis et al., 2011), 1,3-propanediol (Chatzifragkou et al., 2011a; Hirschmann et al., 2005; Wilkens et al., 2012), single cell oils (Papanikolaou and Aggelis, 2002), ethanol (Metsoviti et al., 2012), 2,3-butanediol (Metsoviti et al., 2012) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (Kachrimanidou et al., 2013). Among those, 1,3-propane- diol (PDO) has currently re-gained considerable attention, due to its recognition as a green platform chemical with a wide spectrum of industrial applications (Zeng and Sabra, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Rapeseed meal (RSM) hydrolysate was evaluated as substitute for commercial nutrient supplements in 1,3-propanediol (PDO) fermentation using the strain Clostridium butyricum VPI 1718. RSM was enzymatically converted into a generic fermentation feedstock, enriched in amino acids, peptides and various micro-nutrients, using crude enzyme consortia produced via solid state fermentation by a fungal strain of Aspergillus oryzae. Initial free amino nitrogen concentration influenced PDO production in batch cultures. RSM hydrolysates were compared with commercial nutrient supplements regarding PDO production in fed-batch cultures carried out in a bench-scale bioreactor. The utilization of RSM hydrolysates in repeated batch cultivation resulted in a PDO concentration of 65.5 g/L with an overall productivity of 1.15 g/L/h that was almost 2 times higher than the productivity achieved when yeast extract was used as nutrient supplement.
    Bioresource Technology 05/2014; 159:167–175. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2014.02.021 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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