Short- and long-term effects of a dietary yeast β-glucan (Macrogard) and alginic acid (Ergosan) preparation on immune response in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)
ABSTRACT The present study investigated the immunomodulatory activity of Ergosan, an algal extract containing alginic acid, and Macrogard, a yeast extract containing β-glucans, on innate and specific immunity in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Four cycles of experimental feeding using normal fish feed formulation (control group) supplemented with Ergosan (0.5%) or Macrogard (0.1%) were performed at 60-day intervals (15 days of treatment + 45 days of suspension). Serum complement, lysozyme, total proteins and heat shock protein (HSP) concentrations were measured at 15, 30 and 45 days from the end of the first 15-day feeding cycle (short term) and 45 days after the end of each feeding cycle over a 35-week period (long term). The percentage of B- and T-lymphocytes in peripheral blood leucocytes and gut were measured over long-term trial.Significant elevation (P < 0.05) in serum complement activity occurred in sea bass fed with alginic acid and glucans, at 15 days from the end of first cycle of treatment. Significant elevation (P < 0.05) in serum lysozyme, gill and liver HSP concentration were observed in the same experimental groups at 30 days from the end of treatment, whereas a significant increase (P < 0.05) of complement activity was only observed in fish that received an Ergosan diet. At 45 days from the end of treatment, complement, lysozyme and HSP concentration did not differ among groups.Over the long-term period, no significant differences were observed in innate and specific immune parameters, survival, growth performances and conversion index in treated and control fish. A dramatic decrease of both innate and acquired immune parameters was observed during the winter season in all groups, followed by a partial recovery when water temperature increased. Reduction in complement and lysozyme activities was significatively correlated (p < 0.01) to water temperature variation. The results suggested the potential of alginic acid and β-glucans to activate some innate immune responses in sea bass, and particularly under conditions of immunodepression related to environmental stress.
Article: Immunomodulatory effects of beta-glucan on neutrophil function in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque, 1820).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stimulatory effects of yeast beta-1,3-1,6-glucans on neutrophils have long been recognized, but effects of glucans on degranulation of primary granules in fish neutrophils have not been previously reported. Neutrophil function was monitored during in vitro and in vivo application of glucans to non- (NS), acute- (AS) and chronically stressed (CS) fish. beta-Glucan proved to be a strong and quick (80%, 2 min) stimulant of degranulation. Dietary glucan increased degranulation in NS fish, and prevented a decrease in AS fish. Degranulation in CS fish returned to NS levels 3 days after the glucan diet was fed. Fathead minnows appear to be a useful model to investigate neutrophil degranulation in fish exposed to different environmental conditions and immunomodulators. Use of beta-glucans in fish diets prior to AS and during chronic stress can enhance neutrophil function, potentially increasing disease resistance and survival rates after transportation or exposure to poor water quality.Developmental & Comparative Immunology 02/2006; 30(9):817-30. · 3.27 Impact Factor
Article: Oral administration of beta-1,3/1,6-glucan to dogs temporally changes total and antigen-specific IgA and IgM.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The effect of oral administration of beta-1,3/1,6-glucans from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on humoral immunity in domestic dogs is not known. In this study, 15 beagle dogs were orally given MacroGard tablets, which contain 150 mg of this beta-glucan, daily for 4 weeks. At the end of this period, the total serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) level decreased significantly in the group treated with the glucan compared to that in the control group as well as compared to the concentrations before supplementation. In contrast, the total serum IgM level rose significantly, whereas no effect on the IgG level occurred. Similar changes were seen in Bordetella-specific IgA and IgM titers following vaccination during the supplementation period. The IgA concentration also became significantly lower in the saliva and tears of the glucan group than in the placebo group. The effects disappeared 1 week after the cessation of the supplementation. In conclusion, the results showed a temporary change in the isotype profile during glucan supplementation.Clinical and vaccine immunology: CVI 02/2010; 17(2):281-5. · 2.37 Impact Factor