Prophylactic components of buckwheat
ABSTRACT Buckwheat has been grown for centuries and now it is one of the most important alternative crops and a valuable raw material for functional food production. Many nutraceutical compounds exist in buckwheat seeds and other tissues. It is a rich source of starch and contains many valuable compounds, such as proteins, antioxidative substances, trace elements and dietary fibre. Buckwheat proteins have unique amino acids composition with special biological activities. Besides high-quality proteins, buckwheat seed contain several components with healing benefits: flavonoids and flavones, phytosterols, fagopyrins and thiamin-binding proteins. The allergenic proteins and their derivatives are also present in the buckwheat seeds. For the food industry, the most attractive trend is development of new functional foods, but production of health benefit products has also perspective. In this review we focus on knowledge of protein composition and the other prophylactic compounds of buckwheat products.
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to test wheat bran and buckwheat hull extracts as lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. Buckwheat hull contain high amounts of total phenol, total flavonoid and tannins compared to wheat bran. Ferulic acid was the predominant phenolic acid found in wheat bran (695.32 µg/g dry weight). Rutin was found to be the major flavonoid presented in buckwheat hull (1255.7 µg/g dry weight). Buckwheat hull has the greatest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity (90.36 and 93.90%, respectively) compared with wheat bran (68.68 and 73.24%, respectively). Rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet and received wheat bran or buckwheat hull extracts at dose (1000 mg/kg body weight/day) showed significantly lowered in the plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and glucose, while plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) level showed slightly increase. The activity of transaminase enzymes (ALT and AST) significantly decreased in the groups administrated with wheat bran and buckwheat hull extracts compared with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC). Furthermore, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma of treated groups showed a significantly decreased while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was significant increased compared with HC group. In addition, wheat bran and buckwheat hull extracts improved plasma enzymatic antioxidants glutathione – S – transeferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in treated groups. In general, the results indicated that, both of wheat bran and buckwheat hull extracts showed significant effect in lipid lowering and antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats, but buckwheat hull extract was more effective than wheat bran extract. That might be due to its highly content of total phenol, total flavonoid and tannins (which showed a high antioxidant effect) with their abilities to lower plasma cholesterol level as well as to slow down the lipid peroxidation process and to enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity.International Journal of Advanced Research 04/2014; 2(4):724. · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), a highly nutritious pseudocereal rich in bioactive compounds, is principally cultivated in central and eastern European countries. Buckwheat groats and husks of 10 cultivars were subjected to nutritional composition analysis and in vitro starch digestibility determination. Significant genetic variation was detected in buckwheat groats for 1,000-kernel weight (16.5–39.8 g), protein content (10.2–17.9%), soluble dietary fiber (1.4–3.4%), insoluble dietary fiber (2.3–8.6%), total dietary fiber (3.6–10.6%), free phenolics (4.5–17.1 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GA]/g), and total phenolics content (6.8–20.7 mg of GA/g). The buckwheat husks exhibited large differences between cultivars in protein content (3.0–6.5%), bound phenolics (6.7–26.1 mg of GA/g), and total phenolics content (32.4–58.6 mg of GA/g), which was 1.5–8 times higher than in the groat. Cooked and cooled buckwheat groats exhibited lower starch digestibility and greater resistant starch content than raw buckwheat groats. Buckwheat cultivars with unique nutritional composition, such as Co901 and Ta-1, were identified for future breeding.Cereal Chemistry 03/2013; 90(2):132-137. DOI:10.1094/CCHEM-07-12-0090-R · 1.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A practical antihypertensive food, neo-fermented buckwheat sprouts (neo-FBS), was produced from buckwheat sprouts by lactic fermentation. The neo-FBS preparation gave a 12.7 times better yield and had a 10 times more potent blood-pressure-lowering (BPL) effect than conventionally prepared products. Neo-FBS decreased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) at a dose of 0.010 mg/kg, an effect comparable to 1.0 mg/kg captopril, an anti-hypertensive drug. Orally administered neo-FBS (10 mg/kg) significantly decreased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the lung, thoracic aorta, heart, kidney, and liver of SHRs. Neo-FBS had a detectable relaxing effect on a phenylephrine-precontracted thoracic aorta in SHRs at 0.5 μg/mL and the EC50 value was 8.3 ± 1.4 μg/mL. The ACE inhibition and vasorelaxation activities were found to be responsible for the excellent BPL effect of neo-FBS. As SHR is a standard model for human hypertension, neo-FBS may also have BPL effects in human patients.Journal of Functional Foods 01/2013; 5(1):406–415. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2012.11.013 · 4.48 Impact Factor