Differential item functioning of the English and Chinese versions of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence

Department of Psychology, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA
Addictive behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.76). 02/2009; 34(2):125-133. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.09.003


Different language versions of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) have been developed, but no studies have evaluated measurement equivalence between the respective non-English and English versions. We investigated differential item functioning (DIF) of the English and Chinese versions using a multidimensional item response theory approach. A community sample of 409 American smokers completed the English version (n = 241) and the Chinese version (n = 168). Results indicated two correlated dimensions (morning and daytime nicotine dependence) of the FTND and one item (difficult to refrain) showing significant large DIF, suggesting respondents using the Chinese version were more likely to endorse this item and report more difficulty to refrain from smoking at various public places even after controlling for the nicotine dependence level. However, the impact of this DIF item was found negligible on the scale level, suggesting the acceptability of conducting scale-level analysis using both language versions. Further analysis revealed that the reliabilities of two dimensions did not meet the commonly accepted standard. Suggestions were made to improve scale reliabilities of the FTND.

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    • "Multiple regression analyses indicated that the FTND showed significant correlations with smoking-related variables in expected directions for both men and women, which suggests its concurrent validity. Furthermore, a construct reliability of .80 and 2-factor solution found for men in this study were similar to findings from previous studies with male smokers of other Asian ethnic groups (Huang et al., 2009; Yamada et al., 2009; Yang, Shiffman, Rockett, Cui, & Cao, 2011). Based on these findings, the FTND appeared to be a reliable and valid measure to assess nicotine dependence for Korean American male smokers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: This study was conducted to compare gender differences in the psychometric properties of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Methods: The sample comprised 334 Korean immigrants (97 women and 237 men) who reported daily smoking for the past 6 months. Item-by-item responses and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were compared by gender. Promax rotation was selected based on findings from previous studies suggesting correlated factors. Results: Compared with men, women smoked fewer cigarettes per day, were more likely to smoke when ill in bed, and were less likely to smoke frequently in the morning. The entire sample and men within the sample had the same factor loading pattern, where three items (time to first cigarette, the cigarette most hate to give up, and smoke more frequently in the morning) were loaded on Factor 1 (morning smoking) and the remaining three items (difficult to refrain from smoking in public places, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and smoking even when ill in bed) on Factor 2 (daytime smoking). For women, however, neither the 1- nor 2-factor model fit the data well. Conclusions: For Korean American male smokers, the psychometric properties of the FTND were similar to those seen in other populations, but this was not the case with Korean American women. Clinicians may need to modify their interpretation of nicotine dependence severity if basing only on the FTND with Korean women. The FTND assesses smoking patterns which has a cultural influence and other measures of nicotine dependence should be considered.
    The Journal of Smoking Cessation 08/2012; 7(1):1-6. DOI:10.1017/jsc.2012.5
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    ABSTRACT: Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when a test item has different statistical properties in subgroups, controlling for the underlying ability measured by the test. DIF assessment is necessary when evaluating measurement bias in tests used across different language groups. However, other factors such as educational attainment can differ across language groups, and DIF due to these other factors may also exist. How to conduct DIF analyses in the presence of multiple, correlated factors remains largely unexplored. This study assessed DIF related to Spanish versus English language in a 44-item object naming test. Data come from a community-based sample of 1,755 Spanish- and English-speaking older adults. We compared simultaneous accounting, a new strategy for handling differences in educational attainment across language groups, with existing methods. Compared to other methods, simultaneously accounting for language- and education-related DIF yielded salient differences in some object naming scores, particularly for Spanish speakers with at least 9 years of education. Accounting for factors that vary across language groups can be important when assessing language DIF. The use of simultaneous accounting will be relevant to other cross-cultural studies in cognition and in other fields, including health-related quality of life.
    04/2011; 2(1):19-25. DOI:10.4081/ar.2011.e4
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Validated metrics of tobacco dependence exist, but their value for global surveillance of tobacco dependence and development of tobacco control interventions is not well understood. This paper reviews tobacco dependence metrics for non-cigarette products, and whether measures of tobacco dependence have been validated in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). Data sources Searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, EMBASE, CINAHL and Global Health databases using variant terms for types of tobacco, dependence, measures and validity/reliability. Articles discussing dependence theories and/or metrics were fully reviewed and synthesised. Study selection Searches yielded 2702 unique articles. Two independent coders identified 587 articles for abstract review, and 229 were subsequently fully reviewed. Findings from 50 eligible papers are summarised. Data extraction An initial thematic analysis concentrated on four concepts: general tobacco dependence, dependence metrics, tobacco dependence in LMIC and dependence on non-cigarette tobacco. Data synthesis Analysis identified 14 distinct tobacco dependence instruments. Existing metrics treat tobacco dependence as multifaceted. Measures have been developed almost exclusively around cigarette smoking, although some validation and application across products has occurred. Where cross-national validation has occurred, however, this has rarely included LMIC. Conclusions For purposes of global surveillance of tobacco dependence, there is a compelling need for validated measures to apply universally across social contexts and a multitude of tobacco products. Alternatively, effective tobacco control interventions require validated dependence measures that integrate specific behavioural elements and social context of product use. While different measures of dependence are required to fulfil each of these goals, both have value in addressing the global tobacco epidemic.
    Tobacco control 06/2013; 23(3). DOI:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050641 · 5.93 Impact Factor
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