Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina: a multi-analytical approach to identification
ABSTRACT Observations following the discovery of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina (SC), USA, suggest that a multi-analytical approach, using a standard, minimal set of criteria, should be adopted for determining dinoflagellate species identity and taxonomic placement. A combination of morphological, molecular, and biochemical analyses were used to determine the identity of this “red tide” dinoflagellate, first documented in SC waters in the spring of 1998. Results from thecal plate tabulations (based on scanning electron and epifluorescence microscopy), gene sequence data, species-specific PCR probe assays, and microalgal pigment profiles were analyzed and compared to reference cultures of K. foliaceum. Comparative data showed marked inconsistencies among the K. foliaceum reference culture isolates. In addition, the SC bloom isolate was shown to be mononucleate, contrary to previous reports for K. foliaceum, suggesting a more transient endosymbiotic association than previously considered.
- Journal of Systematics and Evolution 09/2011; 49(5). · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In early 2006, unusual algal blooms of two species occurred in the Salton Sea, a large salt lake in southern California. In mid-January local residents reported bioluminescence in the Sea. Starting in February, large rafts of long-lasting foam, also bioluminescent, were observed as well. Microscopy investigations on water and sediment samples collected in March showed the marine dinoflagellate, Alexandrium margalefii, and the prymnesiophyte, Prymnesium sp., both previously unreported in the Salton Sea, to be abundant. Bioluminescence and foam production continued through March. Other dinoflagellate species, recorded during earlier studies, were rare or not detected during these blooms. Despite the fact that many Alexandrium species are known paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) producers, preliminary saxitoxin tests on this population of A. margalefii were negative. Previous reports on A. margalefii do not mention bioluminescence. It appears that the foam was caused by the Prymnesium sp. bloom, probably via protein-rich exudates and lysis of other algal cells, and its glow was due to entrained A. margalefii. This is the first report of A. margalefii in U.S. waters and the first report of it in a lake.Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 08/2008; · 0.20 Impact Factor
- Phycologia 01/2008; 47(1):41-53. · 1.82 Impact Factor