Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina: a multi-analytical approach to identification
ABSTRACT Observations following the discovery of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina (SC), USA, suggest that a multi-analytical approach, using a standard, minimal set of criteria, should be adopted for determining dinoflagellate species identity and taxonomic placement. A combination of morphological, molecular, and biochemical analyses were used to determine the identity of this “red tide” dinoflagellate, first documented in SC waters in the spring of 1998. Results from thecal plate tabulations (based on scanning electron and epifluorescence microscopy), gene sequence data, species-specific PCR probe assays, and microalgal pigment profiles were analyzed and compared to reference cultures of K. foliaceum. Comparative data showed marked inconsistencies among the K. foliaceum reference culture isolates. In addition, the SC bloom isolate was shown to be mononucleate, contrary to previous reports for K. foliaceum, suggesting a more transient endosymbiotic association than previously considered.
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ABSTRACT: Acquisition of phototrophy is widely distributed in the eukaryotic tree of life and can involve algal endosymbiosis or plastid retention from green or red origins. Species with acquired phototrophy are important components of diversity in aquatic ecosystems, but there are major differ- ences in host and algal taxa involved and in niches of protists with acquired phototrophy in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Organisms that carry out acquired phototrophy are usually mixotrophs, but the degree to which they depend on phototrophy is variable. Evidence suggests that 'excess car- bon' provided by acquired phototrophy has been important in supporting major evolutionary innova- tions that are crucial to the current ecological roles of these protists in aquatic ecosystems. Acquired phototrophy occurs primarily among radiolaria, foraminifera, ciliates and dinoflagellates, but is most ecologically important among the first three. Acquired phototrophy in foraminifera and radiolaria is crucial to their contributions to carbonate, silicate, strontium, and carbon flux in subtropical and trop- ical oceans. Planktonic ciliates with algal kleptoplastids are important in marine and fresh waters, whereas ciliates with green algal endosymbionts are mostly important in freshwaters. The photo- trophic ciliate Myrionecta rubra can be a major primary producer in coastal ecosystems. Our know- ledge of how acquired phototrophy influences trophic dynamics and biogeochemical cycles is rudi- mentary; we need to go beyond traditional concepts of 'plant' and 'animal' functions to progress in our understanding of aquatic microbial ecology. This is a rich area for exploration using a combina- tion of classical and molecular techniques, laboratory and field research, and physiological and ecosystem modeling.Aquatic Microbial Ecology - AQUAT MICROB ECOL. 01/2009; 57:279-310.
- Continental Shelf Research 01/2008; 28:3-10. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In early 2006, unusual algal blooms of two species occurred in the Salton Sea, a large salt lake in southern California. In mid-January local residents reported bioluminescence in the Sea. Starting in February, large rafts of long-lasting foam, also bioluminescent, were observed as well. Microscopy investigations on water and sediment samples collected in March showed the marine dinoflagellate, Alexandrium margalefii, and the prymnesiophyte, Prymnesium sp., both previously unreported in the Salton Sea, to be abundant. Bioluminescence and foam production continued through March. Other dinoflagellate species, recorded during earlier studies, were rare or not detected during these blooms. Despite the fact that many Alexandrium species are known paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) producers, preliminary saxitoxin tests on this population of A. margalefii were negative. Previous reports on A. margalefii do not mention bioluminescence. It appears that the foam was caused by the Prymnesium sp. bloom, probably via protein-rich exudates and lysis of other algal cells, and its glow was due to entrained A. margalefii. This is the first report of A. margalefii in U.S. waters and the first report of it in a lake.Lake and Reservoir Management - LAKE RESERV MANAG. 01/2007; 23(5):620-629.