Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina: a multi-analytical approach to identification
ABSTRACT Observations following the discovery of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina (SC), USA, suggest that a multi-analytical approach, using a standard, minimal set of criteria, should be adopted for determining dinoflagellate species identity and taxonomic placement. A combination of morphological, molecular, and biochemical analyses were used to determine the identity of this “red tide” dinoflagellate, first documented in SC waters in the spring of 1998. Results from thecal plate tabulations (based on scanning electron and epifluorescence microscopy), gene sequence data, species-specific PCR probe assays, and microalgal pigment profiles were analyzed and compared to reference cultures of K. foliaceum. Comparative data showed marked inconsistencies among the K. foliaceum reference culture isolates. In addition, the SC bloom isolate was shown to be mononucleate, contrary to previous reports for K. foliaceum, suggesting a more transient endosymbiotic association than previously considered.
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ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Identification of the limiting nutrient(s) is a requirement for the rational management of eutrophication. Here, we present the first experimental analysis of nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth and its seasonal variation in the Guadiana estuary (SE Portugal-SW Spain). Ten microcosm experiments were performed during 2005 and 2008, using water samples collected in the freshwater tidal zone of the Guadiana estuary. Nitrate, phosphate and silicate were added in a single pulse, alone and in combina-tions. Experimental treatments were incubated for 4 days under controlled laboratory conditions. Phytoplankton response to nutrient enrichment was evaluated through changes in biomass (Chla), and abundance of specific phytoplankton groups. Overall, phytoplankton growth seemed to be nitrogen-limited throughout the productive period, especially green algae in 2005 and diatoms in 2008. In the summer 2008, cyanobacteria and the harmful dinoflagellate Kryptoperidinium foliaceum responded to N enrichment in the absence of Si. Indeed, the presence of K. foliaceum was observed for the first time in the freshwater tidal reaches of the Guadiana estuary, where dinoflagellates were usually absent or rare. The significant increase on dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria growth in response to N enrichment in the absence of Si is alarming, because anthropo-genic nutrient enrichments usually increase N and P, but not Si. Furthermore, relatively high N concentrations, up to 22 mM, were found to be limiting to phytoplankton growth. These results should therefore be used as a management tool when establishing nutrient criteria and nutrient loading budgets to estuarine waters.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 12/2010; 91. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Light is usually the main driver of phytoplankton growth in turbid estuaries, but it has received far less attention than nutrients as a bottom-up factor. This study presents the first experimental analysis of light limitation of phytoplankton growth and production and its seasonal variability in the freshwater tidal reaches of the turbid Guadiana estuary, SE Portugal/SW Spain. Natural phytoplankton communities were exposed to different photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensities. Short-term incubations with addition of 14 HCO 3 À were used to estimate photosynthetic parameters and long-term incubations allowed the evaluation of the effects of light on phytoplankton composition and growth. Light limitation of phytoplankton growth occurred throughout the year in the freshwater tidal reaches of the estuary and no photoinhibition was observed at least up to 615 mmol photons m À2 s À1 . In the summer, co-limitation by nutrients prevented a positive response of phytoplankton to light enrichment. Diatoms were the most light-limited group, whilst cyanobacteria were the only group acclimated to low-light conditions. Green algae and dinoflagellates responded positively to higher PAR exposures. High saturating irradiances, high light-saturated rates of primary production and low photosynthetic efficiencies suggest that phyto-plankton community was not acclimated to the low-light conditions that prevail in the Guadiana estuary.Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 01/2011; 91. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The establishment of an endosymbiotic relationship typically seems to be driven through complementation of the host's limited metabolic capabilities by the biochemical versatility of the endosymbiont. The most significant examples of endosymbiosis are represented by the endosymbiotic acquisition of plastids and mitochondria, introducing photosynthesis and respiration to eukaryotes. However, there are numerous other endosymbioses that evolved more recently and repeatedly across the tree of life. Recent advances in genome sequencing technology have led to a better understanding of the physiological basis of many endosymbiotic associations. This review focuses on endosymbionts in protists (unicellular eukaryotes). Selected examples illustrate the incorporation of various new biochemical functions, such as photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and recycling, and methanogenesis, into protist hosts by prokaryotic endosymbionts. Furthermore, photosynthetic eukaryotic endosymbionts display a great diversity of modes of integration into different protist hosts. In conclusion, endosymbiosis seems to represent a general evolutionary strategy of protists to acquire novel biochemical functions and is thus an important source of genetic innovation.Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B Biological Sciences 03/2010; 365(1541):699-712. · 6.23 Impact Factor