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Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina: a multi-analytical approach to identification

Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1031, N-0315 Oslo, Norway
Harmful Algae (Impact Factor: 3.34). 12/2002; DOI: 10.1016/S1568-9883(02)00051-3

ABSTRACT Observations following the discovery of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina (SC), USA, suggest that a multi-analytical approach, using a standard, minimal set of criteria, should be adopted for determining dinoflagellate species identity and taxonomic placement. A combination of morphological, molecular, and biochemical analyses were used to determine the identity of this “red tide” dinoflagellate, first documented in SC waters in the spring of 1998. Results from thecal plate tabulations (based on scanning electron and epifluorescence microscopy), gene sequence data, species-specific PCR probe assays, and microalgal pigment profiles were analyzed and compared to reference cultures of K. foliaceum. Comparative data showed marked inconsistencies among the K. foliaceum reference culture isolates. In addition, the SC bloom isolate was shown to be mononucleate, contrary to previous reports for K. foliaceum, suggesting a more transient endosymbiotic association than previously considered.

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    • "Genetic analysis of dinotom host and endosymbiont mitochondria not only revealed a functional overlap between these organelles but also showed that both the host and the endosymbiont mitochondria appear to be largely unaffected by the integration of the endosymbiont, retaining nearly all characteristics of free-living dinoflagellate and diatom mitochondria , respectively (Imanian and Keeling 2007; Imanian et al. 2012). Observed size variability of the endosymbiont nucleus containing varying amounts of DNA and reports of isolates lacking the endosymbiont nucleus prompted speculations that the endosymbiont nucleus of dinotoms may be no longer functional (Kempton et al. 2002; Figueroa et al. 2009). However, the existence of functional mitochondria in the endosymbiont suggests that an actively transcribing nucleus is present to maintain these organelles. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dinoflagellates harboring diatom endosymbionts (termed 'dinotoms') have undergone a process often referred to as 'tertiary endosymbiosis' - the uptake of algae containing secondary plastids and integration of those plastids into the new host. In contrast to other tertiary plastids, and most secondary plastids, the endosymbiont of dinotoms is distinctly less reduced, retaining a number of cellular features, such as their nucleus and mitochondria and others, in addition to their plastid. This has resulted in redundancy between host and endosymbiont, at least between some mitochondrial and cytosolic metabolism, where this has been investigated. The question of plastidial redundancy is particularly interesting since the fate of the host dinoflagellate plastid is unclear. The host cytosol possesses an eyespot that has been postulated to be a remnant of the ancestral peridinin plastid, but this has not been tested, nor has its possible retention of plastid functions. To investigate this possibility, we searched for plastid-associated pathways and functions in transcriptomic datasets from three dinotom species. We show that the dinoflagellate host has indeed retained genes for plastid-associated pathways, and that these genes encode targeting peptides similar to those of other dinoflagellate plastid targeted proteins. Moreover, we also identified one gene encoding an essential component of the dinoflagellate plastid protein import machinery, altogether suggesting the presence of a functioning plastid import system in the host, and by extension a relict plastid. The presence of the same plastid-associated pathways in the endosymbiont also extends the known functional redundancy in dinotoms, further confirming the unusual state of plastid integration in this group of dinoflagellates.
    Genome Biology and Evolution 09/2014; 6(9). DOI:10.1093/gbe/evu182 · 4.53 Impact Factor
    • "Dinotoms display great variation in morphology (including both athecate forms and thecate species with different plate configurations), habitats (freshwater to marine), and lifestyles (including planktonic and both motile and sessile benthic forms) (Horiguchi 2004, 2006). Some, such as K. foliaceum, Peridiniopsis spp., Peridinium quinquecorne, can form harmful blooms (Kempton et al. 2002; Garate- Lizarraga and Muneton-Gomez 2008; Zhang et al. 2011). Although production of toxins has not been reported, these blooms can cause noxious odors and produce fish kills by depleting the water of dissolved oxygen. "
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    Endosymbiosis, Edited by Löffelhardt W, 01/2014: pages 233-291; Springer-Verlag., ISBN: 978-3-7091-1302-8
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    • "The cells were held in the 70% EtOH bath for 48 hours at 4 º C. Cells were rinsed 2x for 5 minutes each with FSW (47 g l -1 , salinity measured with a Reichert hand refractometer using the correction factor of 1.13 from González et al. 1998 15 and then FSW washes of decreasing salinity (40, 34, 28, 23, 17, 11, 6, and 0 g l -1 ). The remainder of the fixation process followed Kempton et al. (2002) 16 . Observations were made using a Cambridge Stereoscan 240 scanning electron microscope. "
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    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 08/2008; DOI:10.1117/12.800919 · 0.20 Impact Factor
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