A Theileria parva type 1 protein phosphatase activity
ABSTRACT The protozoan parasite Theileria (spp. parva and annulata) infects bovine leukocytes and provokes a leukaemia-like disease in vivo. In this study, we have detected a type 1 serine/threonine phosphatase activity with phosphorylase a as a substrate, in protein extracts of parasites purified from infected B lymphocytes. In contrast to this type 1 activity, dose response experiments with okadaic acid (OA), a well characterised inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, indicated that type 2A is the predominant activity detected in host B cells. Furthermore, consistent with polycation-specific activation of the type 2A phosphatase, protamine failed to activate the parasite-associated phosphorylase a phosphatase activity. Moreover, inhibition of phosphorylase a dephosphorylation by phospho-DARPP-32, a specific type 1 inhibitor, clearly demonstrated that a type 1 phosphatase is specifically associated with the parasite, while the type 2A is predominantly expressed in the host lymphocyte. Since an antibody against bovine catalytic protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) subunit only recognised the PP1 in B cells, but not in parasite extracts, we conclude that in parasites the PP1 activity is of parasitic origin. Intriguingly, since type 1 OA-sensitive phosphatase activity has been recently described in Plasmodium falciparum, we can conclude that these medically important parasites produce their one PP1.
- SourceAvailable from: Juan LUIS Castillo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this work, evidence for a critical role of Trichomonas vaginalis protein phosphatase 1 gamma (TvPP1γ) in proliferation and attachment of the parasite to the mammalian cell is provided. Firstly, proliferation and attachment of T. vaginalis parasites to HeLa cells was blocked by calyculin A (CA), a potent PP1 inhibitor. Secondly, it was demonstrated that the enzyme activity of native and recombinant TvPP1γ proteins was inhibited by CA. Thirdly, reverse genetic studies confirmed that antisense oligonucleotides targeted to PP1γ but not PP1α or β inhibited proliferation and attachment of trichomonads CA-treated parasites underwent cytoskeletal modifications, including a lack of axostyle typical labelling, suggesting that cytoskeletal phosphorylation could be regulated by a CA-sensitive phosphatase where the role of PP1γ could not be ruled out. Analysis of subcellular distribution of TvPP1γ by cell fractionation and electron microscopy demonstrated the association between TvPP1γ and the cytoskeleton. The expression of adhesins, AP120 and AP65, at the cell surface was also inhibited by CA. The concomitant inhibition of expression of adhesins and changes in the cytoskeleton in CA-treated parasites suggest a specific role for PP1γ -dependent dephosphorylation in the early stages of the host-parasite interaction. Molecular modelling of TvPP1γ showed the conservation of residues critical for maintaining proper folding into the gross structure common to PP1 proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that TvPP1γ could be considered a potential novel drug target for treatment of trichomoniasis.International journal for parasitology 06/2012; 42(8):715-27. DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2012.03.012
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ABSTRACT: Host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites relies on many coordinated processes. The tachyzoite participates in invasion by providing an actomyosin-dependent force driving it into the nascent parasitophorous vacuole as well as by releasing molecules which contribute to the vacuole membrane. Exposure to type 1/2A protein phosphatase inhibitors, okadaic acid (OA) or tautomycin significantly impairs tachyzoite invasiveness. Furthermore, the tachyzoite extract contains a biochemically active type 1, but not a type 2A, serine-threonine protein phosphatase, which is immunologically related to eukaryotic phosphatase type 1 catalytic subunit. When tachyzoite extracts are incubated with a monoclonal antibody reactive to human type 1 catalytic subunit, other T. gondii molecules are coprecipitated among which one competes with the inhibitory toxin OA. Finally, in vitro phosphate labelling assays indicate that the biochemically characterized PP1 activity controls the phosphorylation of several proteins. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that the type 1 phosphatase activity detected in invasive tachyzoites is implicated in the control of the host cell invasion process.Microbes and Infection 04/2002; 4(3):271-8. DOI:10.1016/S1286-4579(02)01538-1
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ABSTRACT: Activation of casein kinase II (CK2) was one of the first observations made on how Theileria parasites manipulate host cell signal transduction pathways and we argue that CK2 induction may in fact contribute to many of the different activation events that have been described since 1993 for Theileria-infected lymphocytes such as sustained activation of transcription factors c-Myc and NF-kappaB. CK2 also contributes to infected lymphocyte survival by inhibiting caspase activation and is probably behind constitutive PI3-K activation by phosphorylating PTEN. Finally, we also discuss how CK2A may act not only as a kinase, but also as a stimulatory subunit for the protein phosphatase PP2A, so dampening down the MEK/ERK and Akt/PKB pathways and for all these reasons we propose CK2 as a central player in Theileria-induced lymphocyte transformation.Parasitology 02/2005; 130 Suppl(S1):S37-44. DOI:10.1017/S0031182005008140