Article

# Physical conditions in shocked regions of Orion from ground-based observations of H_2O

The Astrophysical Journal (Impact Factor: 6.73). 06/1999; DOI:10.1086/312164
Source: arXiv

ABSTRACT We present observations of the 5$_{1,5}\to4_{2,2}$ transition of water vapor at 325.15 GHz taken with the CSO telescope towards Orion IRc2. The emission is more extended than that of other molecular species such as CH$_3$OH. However, it is much less extended than the emission of water vapor at 183.31 GHz reported by Cernicharo et al (1994). A comparison of the line intensities at 325.15 GHz and 183.31 GHz puts useful constraints on the density and temperature of the emitting regions and allows an estimate of H_2O abundance, x(H_2O), of $\simeq10^{-4}$ in the Plateau and $\simeq10^{-6}-10^{-5}$ in the Ridge. Comment: 4 figures

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ABSTRACT: We have developed a niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) based superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) receiver to cover the 350 micron atmospheric window. This frequency band lies entirely above the energy gap of niobium (700 GHz), a commonly used SIS superconductor. The instrument uses an open structure twin-slot SIS mixer that consists of two Nb/AlN/NbTiN tunnel junctions, NbTiN thin-film microstrip tuning elements, and a NbTiN ground plane. The optical configuration is very similar to the 850 GHz waveguide receiver that was installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in 1997. To minimize front-end loss, we employed reflecting optics and a cooled beamsplitter at 4 K. The instrument has an uncorrected receiver noise temperature of 205K DSB at 800 GHz and 410K DSB at 900 GHz. The degradation in receiver sensitivity with frequency is primarily due to an increase in the mixer conversion loss, which is attributed to the mismatch between the SIS junction and the twin-slot antenna impedance. The overall system performance has been confirmed through its use at the telescope to detect a wealth of new spectroscopic lines.
International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves 01/2000; 21(9):1357-1373. · 0.58 Impact Factor