Ilex paraguariensis extract ameliorates obesity induced by high-fat diet: Potential role of AMPK in the visceral adipose tissue

Department of Food and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Sudaemun-ku, Seoul 120-749, South Korea
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics (Impact Factor: 3.04). 08/2008; 476(2):178-185. DOI: 10.1016/

ABSTRACT The aim of present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of Ilex paraguariensis extract and its molecular mechanism in rats rendered obese by a high-fat diet (HFD). I. paraguariensis extract supplementation significantly lowered body weight, visceral fat-pad weights, blood and hepatic lipid, glucose, insulin, and leptin levels of rats administered HFD. Feeding I. paraguariensis extract reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of the epididymal adipose tissue genes implicated in adipogenesis or thermogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferators’ activated receptor γ2, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, HMG-CoA reductase, uncoupling protein 2, and uncoupling protein 3. Dietary supplementation with I. paraguariensis extract protected rats from the HFD-induced decreases in the phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/AMPK and phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)/ACC protein ratio related to fatty acid oxidation in the edipidymal adipose tissue. The present study reports that the I. paraguariensis extract can have a protective effect against a HFD-induced obesity in rats through an enhanced expression of uncoupling proteins and elevated AMPK phosphorylation in the visceral adipose tissue.

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    • "The worldwide popularity of yerba mate is ascribed to its content and variety of bioactive compounds, such as metilxantin alkaloids (whose main representatives are caffeine and theobromine), terpenes (such as saponins, essential oils, minerals and vitamins) and phenolic compounds (flavonoids, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid), all known for their bioactivity (Silveira et al., 2014; Marcelo et al., 2014; Anesini et al., 2012; Bastos et al., 2007). These compounds exhibit pharmacological activities such as an antioxidant effect (Gao et al., 2013a, 2013b; Anesini et al., 2012), protectiveness against induced DNA damage (Miranda et al., 2008) and osteoporosis (Conforti et al., 2012), and other properties, namely, diuretic (Bastos et al., 2007), chemo preventive, antifungal (Filip et al., 2010), stimulating (Bastos et al., 2007) and antiobesity (Kim et al., 2012; Bracesco et al., 2011; Pang et al., 2008). "
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    • "However, the mate treatment decreased leptin mRNA expression in SWAT, which could explain the intermediary leptin serum levels that were observed in this group, which did not differ from those in the control and EW groups (Lima et al., 2014). The action of yerba mate on leptin serum levels is controversial: some authors showed no effect (Pimentel et al., 2013), others showed a clear decrease in serum leptin (Kang et al., 2012; Pang et al., 2008), and Hussein et al. (2011) showed an increase in serum leptin. These contradictory results may be related to differences in the initial obesity models, species, treatment period and yerba mate concentration. "
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    • "Furthermore, prolonged YM ingestion could regulate glucose absorption by decreasing the transporter protein sodium/glucose co-transporter (SGLT)-1, the main glucose co-transporter in the small intestine (Oliveira et al., 2008). Numerous studies indicate that activation of HFD-associated inflammation leads to impaired insulin signaling (Arçari et al., 2009; Pang et al., 2008; Pimentel et al., 2013). However, we observed no improvements in fasting glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR and QUICKI values or improved glucose tolerance on the oGTT after YM intake, suggesting that the treatment period should be extended (Lima et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract To investigate the effect of Yerba Mate (YM) aqueous extract intake on the NF-kB pathway and AKT expression in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of rats submitted to a high-fat diet (HFD). Male Wistar rats were fed a control (CON) (n = 24) or a HFD (n = 24) for 12 weeks. Afterwards, rats received YM daily (1 g/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Intake of YM aqueous extract reduced body weight gain (p < 0.05) and total blood cholesterol (p < 0.05) in the HFD group in comparison to the non-treated HFD group. HFD group demonstrated an increased glycemic response at 5 and 10 min after insulin injection. YM decreased the ratio between phosphorylated and total kinase inhibitor of κB (IKK), increased the ratio of phosphorylated to total form of protein kinase B (AKT) and reduced NF-κB phosphorylation in the liver of the HFD group. Our data suggest a beneficial role of YM in improving metabolic dysfunctions induced by HFD.
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