Heavy Metal Content in Chinese Vegetable Plantation Land Soils and Related Source Analysis
ABSTRACT According to the previous literature published since 1989, statistical analysis for reported data on the heavy metals in Chinese vegetable plantation soils was carried out systematically in this article. The purpose of this investigation was to study the status of heavy metal content in vegetable land soils systematically through objective assessment to promote the development of vegetable production with high quality and efficiency. It is concluded that Zn, Cr, Cu had relatively high concentrations while the mean concentrations of toxic metals, As, Hg, Cd were 8.03, 0.12, 0.28 mg kg−1, respectively with comparatively low concentrations in Chinese vegetable land. Comparing to Chinese Soil Quality Criterion GB 15618-1995 (6.5 < pH < 7.5), about 24.1, 10.3, and 9.2% of the total samples was contaminated by Cd, Hg, and As, respectively, and the descending order of heavy metals was Cd > Hg > As > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb. When compared among different regions, the more serious heavy metal contamination was found in the vegetable land of eastern China and the main contamination elements were Cd, Hg, and Zn. In the mid region, vegetable plantation land soil was mainly polluted by As and Cd, as well as by Hg, Zn, and Cu, to some extent. In the west region of China, Cd and As contamination was also observed to some degree, along with few soil samples exceeding the grade II level of GB 15618-1995 (6.5 < pH < 7.5) for Cu, Cr, and Hg content. Compared to the five vegetable plantation land patterns, the highest concentration of As, Cd, Hg, and Zn occurred in the industrial/sewage irrigation vegetable land, especially for Hg with 2.36 mg kg−1 content averagely, which is 10.5-21.1 times higher than the other four types of vegetable lands. The highest concentration of Cu and Cr occurred in the greenhouse vegetable land soils, and urban vegetable land soil had the highest Pb content in comparison with the other types of vegetable plantation land patterns. By analyzing heavy metal content under different vegetable land patterns, it was found that soil in vegetable production base had relatively low heavy metal concentrations except for Pb with a slightly higher amount in the suburb area. The soil quality of common vegetable land was good with the lowest concentrations for most heavy metals. Under present utilization patterns of vegetable land, the soil quality in Chinese vegetable base land was good with comparatively low concentrations of heavy metals and mostly not exceeding the grade II level of Chinese Soil Quality Criterion GB 15618-1995 (6.5 < pH < 7.5). However, comparatively serious contamination was found in industrial/sewage irrigation and suburb vegetable land soils.
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ABSTRACT: There is growing concern about food safety and environmental contamination due to potential health risks to consumers. The aims of this study are to elucidate the accumulation status, influencing factors, and potential risk of selected heavy metals in soils and vegetables from a typical greenhouse vegetable production system in China. The potential health risks of heavy metals through soil contact and vegetable consumption were evaluated for greenhouse and corresponding open field production. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse vegetable soils were greater than those in open field soils. Leaf vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals than root and fruit vegetables, especially for Cd. The target hazard quotient of heavy metals through vegetable consumption was greater than 1 for leaf vegetables, and was also higher for greenhouse vegetables than those from open field. The risk of exposure to heavy metals through direct contact with soil and vegetable consumption was higher for children than for adults and seniors. Planting patterns with different vegetable types and soil properties can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals.Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 03/2014; 20(5). DOI:10.1080/10807039.2013.831267 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Assessing the concentration of potentially harmful heavy metals in the soil of greenhouses is important in order to evaluate the potential risks to humans. These risks may be higher in soils to which fertilizers have been applied over many years. To investigate this risk, the concentrations of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were measured by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer in greenhouse soils collected in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China, a region well-known for greenhouse cultivation. The environmental quality of greenhouse soil was assessed using the single pollution index method and the Nemerow comprehensive index method based on the environmental standard for greenhouse vegetable production in China (HJ333-2006). The results indicated that the heavy metals accumulated to greater levels in the greenhouse topsoils with increasing cultivation periods. The highest concentration of Cu was observed in greenhouse topsoils planted for 15 years. The distribution of heavy metals in soil profiles (0~20cm, 20~40cm, 40~60cm, 60~80cm, 80~100cm) displayed a wide range of variation. Cr, Pb, and Zn tended to accumulate in the greenhouse topsoil (0~20cm). The maximum value of Cu and Cd were observed at a depth of 80~100cm and 40~60cm in the greenhouse cultivated for 20 years, respectively. As the cultivation periods prolonged, Cu was subject to downward movement to the lower soil horizons and Cd began to accumulate below the topsoil due to the strong migration ability. Using the the single pollution index and the Nemerow comprehensive index of heavy metals, the soil quality in greenhouse topsoils were generally found to be polluted by Cd. This suggests that care should be taken with fertilizers in greenhouse cultivation. This study shows that heavy metals may accumulate in the greenhouse soils with prolonged cultivation periods.01/2011; DOI:10.1109/icbbe.2011.5781595
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ABSTRACT: To help reduce risks of heavy metal pollution, two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the variations, transfer potential, and stability of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) accumulations in celery (Apium graveolens L.) and to screen for low Cd and Pb accumulative cultivars. The maximum differences in shoot Cd concentration were 4.7-fold under low-Cd exposure and 3.3-fold under high-Cd exposure. These genotype variations in Cd accumulation are sufficiently large to help reduce Cd contamination risk in soil by using the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes. Cd accumulation of the Low-Cd-Accumulative genotypes is significantly positive correlated with Pb accumulation. Evidence obtained proves that Cd and Pb accumulations in celery are stable and genotype-dependent at the cultivar level. The presence of high-Pb contamination in soil promoted Cd accumulation in shoots of celery. Celery is considered a species with high risks in Cd pollution and low risks in Pb pollution. Among the tested cultivars, cv. Shuanggangkangbing (SGKB) had the lowest shoot Cd and Pb accumulating abilities, and thus is the most important material for breeding of pollution-safe cultivars (PSCs) to minimize Cd and Pb accumulations in celery.02/2012; 7(1). DOI:10.1007/s11783-012-0399-3