Heavy Metal Content in Chinese Vegetable Plantation Land Soils and Related Source Analysis
ABSTRACT According to the previous literature published since 1989, statistical analysis for reported data on the heavy metals in Chinese vegetable plantation soils was carried out systematically in this article. The purpose of this investigation was to study the status of heavy metal content in vegetable land soils systematically through objective assessment to promote the development of vegetable production with high quality and efficiency. It is concluded that Zn, Cr, Cu had relatively high concentrations while the mean concentrations of toxic metals, As, Hg, Cd were 8.03, 0.12, 0.28 mg kg−1, respectively with comparatively low concentrations in Chinese vegetable land. Comparing to Chinese Soil Quality Criterion GB 15618-1995 (6.5 < pH < 7.5), about 24.1, 10.3, and 9.2% of the total samples was contaminated by Cd, Hg, and As, respectively, and the descending order of heavy metals was Cd > Hg > As > Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb. When compared among different regions, the more serious heavy metal contamination was found in the vegetable land of eastern China and the main contamination elements were Cd, Hg, and Zn. In the mid region, vegetable plantation land soil was mainly polluted by As and Cd, as well as by Hg, Zn, and Cu, to some extent. In the west region of China, Cd and As contamination was also observed to some degree, along with few soil samples exceeding the grade II level of GB 15618-1995 (6.5 < pH < 7.5) for Cu, Cr, and Hg content. Compared to the five vegetable plantation land patterns, the highest concentration of As, Cd, Hg, and Zn occurred in the industrial/sewage irrigation vegetable land, especially for Hg with 2.36 mg kg−1 content averagely, which is 10.5-21.1 times higher than the other four types of vegetable lands. The highest concentration of Cu and Cr occurred in the greenhouse vegetable land soils, and urban vegetable land soil had the highest Pb content in comparison with the other types of vegetable plantation land patterns. By analyzing heavy metal content under different vegetable land patterns, it was found that soil in vegetable production base had relatively low heavy metal concentrations except for Pb with a slightly higher amount in the suburb area. The soil quality of common vegetable land was good with the lowest concentrations for most heavy metals. Under present utilization patterns of vegetable land, the soil quality in Chinese vegetable base land was good with comparatively low concentrations of heavy metals and mostly not exceeding the grade II level of Chinese Soil Quality Criterion GB 15618-1995 (6.5 < pH < 7.5). However, comparatively serious contamination was found in industrial/sewage irrigation and suburb vegetable land soils.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Transfer Factor (TF) of heavy metals from soil to plant is important, because TF is an indicator of heavy metal in soils and a factor that quantifies bioavailability of heavy metals to agricultural products. This study was conducted to investigate the transfer ability of Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), and Lead (Pb) from soil to agricultural products. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated heavy metals (As, Cd and Pb) concentrations in 9 agricultural products (rice, barely, corn, pulse, lettuce, pumpkin, apple, pear, tangerin) and soil. TF of agricultural products was evaluated based on total and HCl-extractable soil concentration of As, Cd, and Pb. Regression analysis was used to predict the relationship of total and HCl-extractable concentration with agricultural product contents of As, Cd, and Pb. The result showed that TF was investigated average 0.006~0.309 (As), 0.002~6.185 (Cd), 0.003~0.602 (Pb). The mean TF value was the highest as rice 0.309 in As, lettuce 6.185, pear 0.717, rice 0.308 in Cd, lettuce 0.602, pumpkin 0.536 in Pb which were dependent on the vegetable species and cereal is showed higher than fruit-vegetables in As. CONCLUSION(S): Soil HCl-extractable concentration of As, Cd, and Pb had the larger effects on thier contents in agricultural products than total soil concentrations. We suggests that TF are served as influential factor on the prediction of uptake. Further study for uptake and accumulation mechanism of toxic metals by agricultural products will be required to assess the human health risk and need TF of more agricultural products.Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture. 12/2012; 31(4).
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ABSTRACT: There is growing concern about food safety and environmental contamination due to potential health risks to consumers. The aims of this study are to elucidate the accumulation status, influencing factors, and potential risk of selected heavy metals in soils and vegetables from a typical greenhouse vegetable production system in China. The potential health risks of heavy metals through soil contact and vegetable consumption were evaluated for greenhouse and corresponding open field production. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of Hg, Pb, Cu, and Zn in greenhouse vegetable soils were greater than those in open field soils. Leaf vegetables had relatively higher concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals than root and fruit vegetables, especially for Cd. The target hazard quotient of heavy metals through vegetable consumption was greater than 1 for leaf vegetables, and was also higher for greenhouse vegetables than those from open field. The risk of exposure to heavy metals through direct contact with soil and vegetable consumption was higher for children than for adults and seniors. Planting patterns with different vegetable types and soil properties can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals.Human and Ecological Risk Assessment 03/2014; 20(5). · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate the agricultural product (Pulses, Lettuces, Pumpkins, Apples, Pears and Tangerines) in Korea, monitoring of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) contaminations of agricultural products in cultivated areas and abandoned mine areas were investigated, and risk assessment was performed through dietary intake of agricultural products. METHODS AND RESULTS: The average contents of Cd and Pb ranged from 0.001 to 0.018 mg/kg and from 0.007 to 0.032 mg/kg respectively. The result was showed that contents of Cd and Pb did not exceed maximum residual levels established by CODEX except pumpkins and apples. The average daily intake were in the range of to b.w./day at the mean and 95th percentile for Cd, to b.w./day at the mean and 95th percentile for Pb for general population, based on the Korean public nutrition report 2008. The Hazard Index (HI) from the ratio analysis between daily exposure and safety level values was smaller than 1.0. CONCLUSION(s): This results demonstrated that human exposure to Cd and Pb through dietary intake of agricultural produces from abandoned mine areas might not cause adverse effect exceeding to those from non-contaminated areas.Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture. 09/2011; 30(3).