TNM T3a Renal Cell Carcinoma: Adrenal Gland Involvement is Not the Same as Renal Fat Invasion
ABSTRACT PurposeUpper pole tumors with direct extension into the adrenal gland are currently staged as pT3a tumors in the 1997 TNM staging system. To determine whether the clinical behavior of pT3a adrenal tumors differs from that of tumors with perinephric fat invasion (also stage pT3a) a retrospective analysis was performed.Materials and MethodsOf 1,087 patients who underwent nephrectomy 27 were identified with direct adrenal involvement and 187 were identified with perinephric fat or renal sinus involvement. Variables and outcomes analyzed in each group included the percent of patients with metastatic disease at presentation, lymph node involvement, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score, response to immunotherapy, and median and overall survival using Kaplan-Meier curves.ResultsMedian survival for patients with pT3a disease and perinephric or renal sinus fat involvement was 36 months with a 36% 5-year cancer specific survival rate. In contrast, patients with adrenal gland invasion had significantly worse survival at a median of 12.5 months and a 0% 5-year cancer specific survival rate (p <0.001), which was similar to median survival of those with stage pT4 disease (11 months).ConclusionsUpper pole tumors with direct extension into the adrenal gland predict significantly worse survival than similarly staged tumors with fat invasion and they have a prognosis similar to that of stage pT4 disease. While these data await external validation, consideration should be given to re-categorizing tumors with direct adrenal gland involvement as stage pT4 or in a subcategory such as pT4a.
European Urology 03/2006; 49(2):220-2. · 8.49 Impact Factor
Article: Validation of the 2009 TNM Classification for Renal Cell Carcinoma: Comparison with the 2002 TNM Classification by Concordance Index.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To assess the validity of the 2009 TNM classification for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and compare its ability to predict survival relative to the 2002 classification. We identified 1,691 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy or partial nephrectomy for unilateral, sporadic RCC between 1989 and 2007. Cancer-specific survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and was compared among groups by the log-rank test. Associations of the 2002 and 2009 TNM classifications with death from RCC were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. The predictive abilities of the two classifications were compared by using Harrell's concordance (c) index. There were 234 deaths from RCC a mean of 38 months after nephrectomy. According to the 2002 primary tumor classification, 5-year cancer-specific survival was 97.6% in T1a, 92.0% in T1b, 83.3% in T2, 61.9% in T3a, 51.1% in T3b, 40.0% in T3c, and 33.6% in T4 (p for trend<0.001). According to the 2009 classification, 5-year cancer-specific survival was 83.2% in T2a, 83.8% in T2b, 62.6% in T3a, 41.1% in T3b, 50.0% in T3c, and 26.1% in T4 (p for trend<0.001). The c index for the 2002 primary tumor classification was 0.810 in the univariate analysis and increased to 0.906 in the multivariate analysis. The c index for the 2009 primary tumor classification was 0.808 in the univariate analysis and increased to 0.904 in the multivariate analysis. Our data suggest that the predictive ability the 2009 TNM classification is not superior to that of the 2002 classification.Korean journal of urology 08/2011; 52(8):524-30.
Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society 02/2004; 93(2):118-25. · 1.03 Impact Factor