An evaluation of an automotive clear coat performance exposed to bird droppings under different testing approaches
ABSTRACT In this study, the effects of two types of biological materials, i.e. natural bird droppings and pancreatin, on properties of an automotive acrylic melamine clear coat were studied. In addition, two different testing approaches including pre-aging and post-aging were utilized to investigate the biological resistance. To this end, effects of these biological materials on clear coat surface properties and appearance were investigated by different techniques including digital camera, SEM, AFM, optical microscopy and a gloss meter. In addition the mechanical properties of clear coats were evaluated by micro Vickers measurement and DMTA analysis. For further investigation FTIR analysis was utilized to have a more understanding of the failure mechanism.Results showed that the biological materials have an extremely vital effect on the appearance of the coatings. Decreasing of tg and hardness of the films made by pancreatin and bird droppings were observed and were attributed to the chemical alterations as proved by FTIR analysis. It was also found that the biological degradation occurred on the samples experienced the post-aged testing method was more severe than the samples exposed to pre-aged testing. On the other hands, although bird droppings and pancreatin revealed a same failure mechanism, the effect of the former was more severe. In addition, it has been shown that the enzymatic structure of biological materials is responsible for the catalyzing the hydrolytic degradation of clear coat at neutral pH. Therefore, the biological degradation mechanism may be regarded as an enzymatically induced hydrolytic cleavage.
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ABSTRACT: Nanostructured hybrid clearcoats were produced using sol–gel based organic/inorganic precursors. To this end, clearcoats containing mixtures of a network former (tetraethyl ortosilicate; TEOS) and a network modifier (methacryloxy propyltrimethoxysilane; MEMO) and their hydrolyzed forms were prepared. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope were utilized in order to investigate the morphology of different sol–gel prepared films. The mechanical properties of the bulk and surface of the clearcoats were studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and nanoindentation techniques. The scratch resistance of the hybrid clearcoats was also studied by a laboratory carwash simulator. Decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg), cross-linking density, hardness and elastic modulus were seen for the clearcoat composed of hydrolyzed network modifier combined with hydrolyzed and non-hydrolyzed network former. However, a reverse effect was seen when the hydrolyzed TEOS and non-hydrolyzed MEMO was used. No improvement was observed using hydrolyzed MEMO in the clearcoat composition. Generally, results revealed improved mechanical properties of the clearcoat when the hydrolyzed network former was used together with non-hydrolyzed MEMO. Greater phase separation and silica cluster formation were seen for the clearcoats loaded with hydrolyzed MEMO compared with hydrolyzed TEOS.Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology 64(1). · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Biological resistance of coatings can be regarded as one of the main properties in automotive industries. This study aims to investigate the effects of biological materials on the mechanical performance of an automotive clear coat. To this end, two acrylic melamine clear coats containing different melamine cross-linker contents were used. In addition, biological resistance of these clear coats were studied at two different ageing processes including pre-ageing and post-ageing which involve various hot-cold, humid shockings and UV radiation of sunlight. By the aid of optical microscopy, micro Vickers and DMTA analyses, different optical and mechanical properties such as micro hardness, T g, cross-linking density and storage modulus were studied. Results revealed an inverse impact of both biological materials to decrease the clear coats mechanical attributes. In addition, a complicated effect of ageing conditions was observed for both clear coats exposed to these materials. It was shown that the coating having a higher mechanical properties and T g even resulted in a lower biological resistance.Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2010; 102(1):13-21. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A unified platoon-based mathematical formulation called PAMSCOD is presented to perform arterial (network) traffic signal control while considering multiple travel modes in a vehicle-to-infrastructure communications environment. First, a headway-based platoon recognition algorithm is developed to identify pseudo-platoons given probe vehicles’ online information. It is assumed that passenger vehicles constitute a significant majority of the vehicles in the network. This algorithm identifies existing queues and significant platoons approaching each intersection. Second, a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is solved to determine future optimal signal plans based on the current traffic controller status, online platoon data and priority requests from special vehicles, such as transit buses. Deviating from the traditional common network cycle length, PAMSCOD aims to provide multi-modal dynamical progression (MDP) on the arterial based on the probe information. Microscopic simulation using VISSIM shows that PAMSCOD can easily handle two common traffic modes, transit buses and automobiles, and significantly reduce delays for both modes under both non-saturated and oversaturated traffic conditions as compared to traditional state-of-practice coordinated-actuated signal control with timings optimized by SYNCHRO.Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 01/2011; 17:462-489.