An evaluation of an automotive clear coat performance exposed to bird droppings under different testing approaches
ABSTRACT In this study, the effects of two types of biological materials, i.e. natural bird droppings and pancreatin, on properties of an automotive acrylic melamine clear coat were studied. In addition, two different testing approaches including pre-aging and post-aging were utilized to investigate the biological resistance. To this end, effects of these biological materials on clear coat surface properties and appearance were investigated by different techniques including digital camera, SEM, AFM, optical microscopy and a gloss meter. In addition the mechanical properties of clear coats were evaluated by micro Vickers measurement and DMTA analysis. For further investigation FTIR analysis was utilized to have a more understanding of the failure mechanism.Results showed that the biological materials have an extremely vital effect on the appearance of the coatings. Decreasing of tg and hardness of the films made by pancreatin and bird droppings were observed and were attributed to the chemical alterations as proved by FTIR analysis. It was also found that the biological degradation occurred on the samples experienced the post-aged testing method was more severe than the samples exposed to pre-aged testing. On the other hands, although bird droppings and pancreatin revealed a same failure mechanism, the effect of the former was more severe. In addition, it has been shown that the enzymatic structure of biological materials is responsible for the catalyzing the hydrolytic degradation of clear coat at neutral pH. Therefore, the biological degradation mechanism may be regarded as an enzymatically induced hydrolytic cleavage.
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ABSTRACT: A unified platoon-based mathematical formulation called PAMSCOD is presented to perform arterial (network) traffic signal control while considering multiple travel modes in a vehicle-to-infrastructure communications environment. First, a headway-based platoon recognition algorithm is developed to identify pseudo-platoons given probe vehicles’ online information. It is assumed that passenger vehicles constitute a significant majority of the vehicles in the network. This algorithm identifies existing queues and significant platoons approaching each intersection. Second, a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is solved to determine future optimal signal plans based on the current traffic controller status, online platoon data and priority requests from special vehicles, such as transit buses. Deviating from the traditional common network cycle length, PAMSCOD aims to provide multi-modal dynamical progression (MDP) on the arterial based on the probe information. Microscopic simulation using VISSIM shows that PAMSCOD can easily handle two common traffic modes, transit buses and automobiles, and significantly reduce delays for both modes under both non-saturated and oversaturated traffic conditions as compared to traditional state-of-practice coordinated-actuated signal control with timings optimized by SYNCHRO.Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 01/2011; 17:462-489.
Article: Eczema Herpeticum.Journal of Emergency Medicine 08/2011; · 1.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study aims at investigating the degradation mechanism of an automotive clearcoat caused by bird droppings. Natural bird droppings and their synthetic equivalent (pancreatin) were utilized for this purpose. The presence of highly-etched areas on the surface of coatings and structural variations of clearcoat after being attacked by these materials corresponded to a catalyzed hydrolytic degradation. This finding was obtained using different analytical techniques. Based on these studies, three possible hypotheses were presented, including acid catalysis, metal ion catalysis, and enzymatic catalysis. The conditions required for the occurrence of each hypothesis were discussed. It was found that acid and metal ions have a weak contribution to catalyze the hydrolysis reaction of clearcoat, whereas enzymes existing in bird droppings were mainly responsible for this hydrolytic degradation. KeywordsEnzymatic degradation–Bird droppings–Automotive coating–Hydrolysis–PancreatinJournal of Coatings Technology and Research 01/2011; 8(1):83-95. · 1.09 Impact Factor