The seasonal changes and spatial trends of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the summer and autumn in Changsha city
ABSTRACT 16 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in TSP were identified and quantified in samples collected during May and September of 2008, in Changsha, on three different sites: the city environmental protection agency of Changsha (A), the Middle School Attached to Hunan Normal University (B) and Yuhua district (C). The filters contained the particulate matter were extracted with dichloromethane in ultrasonic bath and then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total of 16 PAHs mean concentrations of summer at site A, B, C were 32.503 ng/m3 , 19.360 ng/m3 and 26.784 ng/m3, respectively; while the values for autumn at site A, B, C were 24.982 ng/m3, 17.088 ng/m3 and 15.465 ng/m3, respectively. The mean concentrations of PAHs of all samples in A site were 0.57 times higher than those measured at B site, and 0.38 times higher than at C site. The analysis of their distribution amongst the main emission sources was done through the diagnosis of concentration ratios of PAHs, as well as using statistical methods like principal component analysis. The diagnosis results of concentration ratios of PAHs suggested that the major polluting sources in the Changsha region during the studied period were the combustion of fuels, such as diesel oil, gasoline, wood and coal. The statistical analysis separated the 16 compounds studied into 3 and 4 factors for summer and autumn, separately. Factor 1 in summer represents vehicular emissions. Factor 2 represents emissions from the nature gas. Factor 3 represents emissions from combustion. In autumn, vehicle emissions, combustion sources, natural gas and coke oven were the major emissions.