Comparing the Spanish and the discriminatory auction formats: A discrete model with private information
ABSTRACT The Spanish Treasury is the only Treasury in the world that uses a hybrid system of discriminatory and uniform price auctions to sell government debt: winning bidders pay their bid price for each unit if this is lower than the weighted average price of winning bids (WAP), and pay the WAP otherwise. Following Gordy [Gordy, M., 1996. Multiple bids in a multiple-unit common-value auction. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System], we model the Spanish auction as a common value auction of multiple units with private information, allowing for multiple bids. Numerical analysis shows that bidders spread their bids more in the Spanish than in the discriminatory auction and bid higher for the first unit, and that the expected seller’s revenue is higher in the Spanish than in the discriminatory auction within a reasonable set of parameter values.
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ABSTRACT: This paper investigates how economic outcomes differ for new model introduction between two extreme contracts: outright sales contract and returns policy contract with full credit. Under the outright sales contract, we show that the retailer's incentive to introduce a new model can lead to a reduction of consumer welfare when the retailer is moderately risk averse. The primary conclusion from this study is that the returns policy contract resolves this conflict between firms and consumers, and that the supply chain introduces the new model only when consumer surplus from the new model is higher than that from the old model.International Journal of Production Economics. 01/2010;