Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor dust matter of Palermo (Italy) area: Extraction, GC–MS analysis, distribution and sources
ABSTRACT Studies on indoor pollution are important since people spend more than 80% of their time indoor environments. In this work the method for PAHs analysis in indoor dust (used as passive sampler) and the results relative to samples collected in the area of Palermo are reported. Dust samples for analysis were collected from 45 indoor environments. Total PAHs concentrations in indoor dusts ranged from 36 to 34 453 μg kg−1 d.w. To correlate indoor and outdoor pollution we analyze, also, the particulate matter and PAHs levels samples collected in four stations. The percentage measured in indoor dusts results more low than that found outside. The values of isomeric ratios for the different samples were used to individuate the predominant PAHs sources.
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ABSTRACT: Debate about the health implications of using smokeless tobacco products (STPs) has prompted considerable interest in characterising their levels of toxic and carcinogenic components. In the present study seventy smokeless tobacco products from the US and Sweden, categorized as chewing tobacco, dry and moist snuff, hard and soft pellets, plug, and loose and portion snus, were analysed for twenty one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The tested brands represented 80-90% of the 2008 market share for the major STP categories in these two countries. There were significant differences in the total and individual PAH concentrations in the different styles of product. Substantially higher levels of total PAHs (10--60 fold) were found in moist and dry snuff and soft pellets than in the other smokeless tobacco styles. The individual PAH concentrations followed the same patterns as total PAHs except for naphthalene, for which the highest concentrations were found in snus and moist snuff. Good correlations were obtained between benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and all the other PAHs except naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene, providing evidence for the first time that it can be used as a good marker for PAHs in STPs. Results were generally in good agreement with two previous studies of PAHs in STPs, except for naphthalene for which significantly lower concentrations were found than previously reported. Analysis of the ratios of different PAHs confirmed that the use of fire-cured tobaccos in the snuffs and soft pellet were the major source of PAHs in these product styles, and provided, for the first time, some indications as to the source of PAHs in the other STP styles, including petrogenic and other combustion sources. This study confirms the presence of PAHs in STPs, and identifies substantial differences between the levels in different STP categories. Since previous studies of naphthalene concentrations in STPs differed so markedly from those found in this study, it is recommended that further work on PAH determination is undertaken to investigate the source of this discrepancy.Chemistry Central Journal 09/2013; 7(1):151. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phthalate esters for decades, and probably even now, were used as softeners in water-based paintings. In general, these compounds are dangerous owing to their carcinogenicity and reproductive effects. Phthalates are not chemically but only physically bound to the matrices, hence, they may be leached into the environment and are ubiquitously found in environmental matrices. Considering that, construction is one of most important fields in Europe, and probably worldwide, with respect to its economic, technological and environmental impact. In the present work the phthalate esters content of several mural paintings was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Because, this issue is especially important to ensure proper security measurements during processes that could involve particulate inhalation, the total concentrations of 15 compounds in the analyzed mural paintings, ranged from 0.8 to 236 mg/Kg d.w. with an average of 39.4 mg/Kg d.w. The highest concentration was found in a mural painting sampled in an apartment built about 50 years ago, though, building age was not significantly correlated with the levels of total and single PAEs. Among the monitored phthalates, only four (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, Di-n-butyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate) were detected in appreciable quantities. Benzyl butyl phthalate was relevant only for one sample and, at trace levels, only for two samples. In all tested mural paintings, except two samples, predominates the bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (from 30 to 100% of total). In general, occasionally, dinonyl phthalate (DNP) was used as an alternative to DEHP, however, in our case, its occurrence was not found. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) was detected in seven samples and ranged from 0.17 to 13.2 mg/Kg d.w.Microchemical Journal 01/2014; 114:187–191. · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The esters of phthalic acid are considered as hazardous pollutants due to their mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and are also classified as endocrine disruptor chemicals. Several compounds of this class of substances for decades, and probably even now, were used as softeners in water-based synthetic paintings. Surfaces and structures, such as house walls painted with phthalates based paintings, can be a concern to construction workers engaged in demolition, restore and paint removal activities if they are not protected from hazardous dust inhalation. In this paper we report the results of an investigation about phthalate esters degradation by direct UV irradiation at 254 nm. The results of kinetic parameters for PAEs photodegradation are reported and it shows that k values for the single PAEs ranged from 0.221 to 0.737 h- 1. Moreover, the results indicate that photolysis is a successful way to remediate PEAs contaminated on mural painting.Microchemical Journal 01/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor