Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Indoor Dust Matter of Palermo (Italy) Area: Extraction, GC–MS Analysis, Distribution and Sources

Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica ed Analitica, Università di Palermo, Parco D’Orleans II, Ed. 17, 90128 Palermo, Italy
Atmospheric Environment (Impact Factor: 3.28). 03/2008; 42(8):1801-1817. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.11.031


Studies on indoor pollution are important since people spend more than 80% of their time indoor environments. In this work the method for PAHs analysis in indoor dust (used as passive sampler) and the results relative to samples collected in the area of Palermo are reported. Dust samples for analysis were collected from 45 indoor environments. Total PAHs concentrations in indoor dusts ranged from 36 to 34 453 μg kg−1 d.w. To correlate indoor and outdoor pollution we analyze, also, the particulate matter and PAHs levels samples collected in four stations. The percentage measured in indoor dusts results more low than that found outside. The values of isomeric ratios for the different samples were used to individuate the predominant PAHs sources.

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    • "Several studies have demonstrated the usefulness of ASE and GC-MS in diagnostic of PAHs and volatile compounds, and it has the advantage over other methods such as microwave-assisted extractor that no additional filtration step is required. The acceptation of ASE as an EPA method can be taken as an additional stimulus to consider this procedure (Mannino, and Orecchio 2008; Alexandrou, et al. 2001; Barreca, et al. 2014; Bo, et al. 2014; González-Pérez et al. 2014; He et al. 2009; Shang, et al. 2014; Dong, et al. 2012; KRALEVA, et al. 2012 and Rajput, et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potent environmental pollutants, and some of them have been identified as carcinogenic and mutagenic. To advance the knowledge of the environmental fate of PAHs, we systematically investigated the influence of different UV wavelengths irradiation on photolysis of PAHs on sandy soil under tow wavelengths (254 and 306 nm) UV irradiation for six PAHs. In addition, kinetic model and influence of several parameters on PAHs photolysis have been studied. The results obtained indicated that UV radiation with a wavelength of 306 nm was more efficient in the photolysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our results showed that fluoranthene (Flt) was the fastest in decomposition, has the greatest value for the coefficient of photolysis (7.4 × 10(-3) h(-1)), and has less half-life, reaching 94 h when using a wavelength of 254 nm. The results indicated that the pyrene (Pyr) was more resistant to photolysis in comparison with indeno(1,2,3-cd) pyrene (IP) and fluoranthene (Flt). The results indicate that photolysis is a successful way to remediate the six studied PAHs compounds.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 01/2015; 22(13). DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-4082-x · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    • "Once engaged in the materials they accumulate [13] and are likely to be retained for a long time due to their persistence, low water solubility and hydrophobicity, especially in organic matrices such as wood. PAHs can be found, to different extents of concentration, in the atmosphere [14] [15], water [16] [17], soil [18] [19], sediments [20], food [21] [22] and other matrices [13]. Some studies were carried out on the concentrations of PAHs in different matrices but unfortunately, information about the distribution of PAHs in ancient materials is rare [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to establish the cause of sinking of an old wooden vessel by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analyses because wood combustion is a source of PAHs. In particular, the molecular PAH patterns generated by each source are like fingerprints and it is possible to determine the processes that generate PAHs by studying their distribution in wood samples. The relative abundance of high molecular weight PAHs, together with the PAH compound ratios and with total index (proposed by us) has demonstrated that samples owe their PAHs in wood archaeological material to a predominant single mode of origin, i.e. combustion processes, therefore we can say that the sinking of the vessel was caused by a fire.
    Microchemical Journal 11/2014; 117:116–121. DOI:10.1016/j.microc.2014.06.020 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Indoor environments can be a sources and/or a repository of many kinds of pollutants [1] [2] and it is necessary to evaluate their indoor sources, concentrations and distributions in order to assess human exposure to them, especially for children, elderly and sick people, because of their behavioral factors and longer indoor residence time [3]. The hazardous air pollutants are defined by the United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), among which there are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals (lead, chrome compounds etc.) usually deposited on surfaces of buildings located in anthropized areas [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phthalate esters for decades, and probably even now, were used as softeners in water-based paintings. In general, these compounds are dangerous owing to their carcinogenicity and reproductive effects. Phthalates are not chemically but only physically bound to the matrices, hence, they may be leached into the environment and are ubiquitously found in environmental matrices. Considering that, construction is one of most important fields in Europe, and probably worldwide, with respect to its economic, technological and environmental impact. In the present work the phthalate esters content of several mural paintings was evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Because, this issue is especially important to ensure proper security measurements during processes that could involve particulate inhalation, the total concentrations of 15 compounds in the analyzed mural paintings, ranged from 0.8 to 236 mg/Kg d.w. with an average of 39.4 mg/Kg d.w. The highest concentration was found in a mural painting sampled in an apartment built about 50 years ago, though, building age was not significantly correlated with the levels of total and single PAEs. Among the monitored phthalates, only four (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, Di-n-butyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate) were detected in appreciable quantities. Benzyl butyl phthalate was relevant only for one sample and, at trace levels, only for two samples. In all tested mural paintings, except two samples, predominates the bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (from 30 to 100% of total). In general, occasionally, dinonyl phthalate (DNP) was used as an alternative to DEHP, however, in our case, its occurrence was not found. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) was detected in seven samples and ranged from 0.17 to 13.2 mg/Kg d.w.
    Microchemical Journal 05/2014; 114:187–191. DOI:10.1016/j.microc.2013.11.015 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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