The chicken B cell line DT40: a novel tool for gene disruption experiments
ABSTRACT The use of the chicken DT40 B cell line is increasing in popularity due to the ease with which it can be manipulated genetically. It offers a targeted to random DNA integration ratio of more than 1:2, by far exceeding that of any mammalian cell line. The facility with which knockout cell lines can be generated, combined with a short generation time, makes the DT40 cell line attractive for phenotype analysis of single and multiple gene disruptions. Advantage has been taken of this to investigate such diverse fields as B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling, cell cycle regulation, gene conversion and apoptosis. In this review, we give a historical introduction and a practical guide to the use of the DT40 cell line, along with an overview of the main topics being researched using the DT40 cell line as a model system. These topics include B cell-specific subjects such as B cell signaling and Ig rearrangement, and subjects common to all cell types such as apoptosis, histones, mRNA modification, chromosomal maintenance and DNA repair. Attention is in each case brought to peculiarities of the DT40 cell line that are of relevance for the subject. Novel applications of the cell line, e.g., as a vector for gene targeting of human chromosomes, are also discussed in this review.
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ABSTRACT: The recent development of screening strategies based on the generation and display of large libraries of antibody fragments has allowed considerable advances for the in vitro isolation of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We previously developed a technology referred to as the 'ADLib (Autonomously Diversifying Library) system', which allows the rapid screening and isolation in vitro of antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from libraries of immunoglobulin M (IgM) displayed by the chicken B-cell line DT40. Here, we report a novel application of the ADLib system to the production of chimeric human mAbs. We have designed gene knock-in constructs to generate DT40 strains that coexpress chimeric human IgG and chicken IgM via B-cell-specific RNA alternative splicing. We demonstrate that the application of the ADLib system to these strains allows the one-step selection of antigen-specific human chimeric IgG. In addition, the production of chimeric IgG can be selectively increased when we modulate RNA processing by overexpressing the polyadenylation factor CstF-64. This method provides a new way to efficiently design mAbs suitable for a wide range of purposes including antibody therapy.Nucleic Acids Research 11/2010; 39(3):e14. · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: Regulation of the DNA damage response and gene expression by the Dot1L histone methyltransferase and the 53Bp1 tumour suppressor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dot1L, a histone methyltransferase that targets histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79), has been implicated in gene regulation and the DNA damage response although its functions in these processes remain poorly defined. Using the chicken DT40 model system, we generated cells in which the Dot1L gene is disrupted to examine the function and focal recruitment of the 53Bp1 DNA damage response protein. Detailed kinetic and dose response assays demonstrate that, despite the absence of H3K79 methylation demonstrated by mass spectrometry, 53Bp1 focal recruitment is not compromised in these cells. We also describe, for the first time, the phenotypes of a cell line lacking both Dot1L and 53Bp1. Dot1L⁻/⁻ and wild type cells are equally resistant to ionising radiation, whereas 53Bp1⁻/⁻/Dot1L⁻/⁻ cells display a striking DNA damage resistance phenotype. Dot1L and 53Bp1 also affect the expression of many genes. Loss of Dot1L activity dramatically alters the mRNA levels of over 1200 genes involved in diverse biological functions. These results, combined with the previously reported list of differentially expressed genes in mouse ES cells knocked down for Dot1L, demonstrates surprising cell type and species conservation of Dot1L-dependent gene expression. In 53Bp1⁻/⁻ cells, over 300 genes, many with functions in immune responses and apoptosis, were differentially expressed. To date, this is the first global analysis of gene expression in a 53Bp1-deficient cell line. Taken together, our results uncover a negative role for Dot1L and H3K79 methylation in the DNA damage response in the absence of 53Bp1. They also enlighten the roles of Dot1L and 53Bp1 in gene expression and the control of DNA double-strand repair pathways in the context of chromatin.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(2):e14714. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Detection of PIGO-deficient cells using proaerolysin: a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms of mutagenesis in the DT40 cell system.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: While isogenic DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways are a great tool to understand the DNA damage response to genotoxic agents by a comparison of cell toxicity in mutants and parental DT40 cells, no convenient mutation assay for mutagens currently exists for this reverse-genetic system. Here we establish a proaerolysin (PA) selection-based mutation assay in DT40 cells to identify glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor deficient cells. Using PA, we detected an increase in the number of PA-resistant DT40 cells exposed to MMS for 24 hours followed by a 5-day period of phenotype expression. GPI anchor synthesis is catalyzed by a series of phosphatidylinositol glycan complementation groups (PIGs). The PIG-O gene is on the sex chromosome (Chromosome Z) in chicken cells and is critical for GPI anchor synthesis at the intermediate step. Among all the mutations detected in the sequence levels observed in DT40 cells exposed to MMS at 100 µM, we identified that ∼55% of the mutations are located at A:T sites with a high frequency of A to T transversion mutations. In contrast, we observed no transition mutations out of 18 mutations. This novel assay for DT40 cells provides a valuable tool to investigate the mode of action of mutations caused by reactive agents using a series of isogenic mutant DT40 cells.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33563. · 4.09 Impact Factor