The effect of sucrose concentration on callus induction followed by differentiation of embryogenic callus derived from petal explants of four carnation cultivars (Nelson, Sagres, Spirit and Impulse) was investigated. Embryogenic calli were produced on Murashige and Skoog [Murashige, T., Skoog, F.A., 1962. Revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant 154, 73–479] basal medium (MS) culture medium containing six concentrations of sucrose (3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18%, w/v) all supplemented with 9 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.8 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA). Maximum frequency of embryogenic callus was obtained from the media containing 9 and 12% sucrose. Somatic embryos were induced on a hormone-free MS media containing the seven concentrations of sucrose. Development of somatic embryos was enhanced by increasing sucrose concentration from 1.5 to 12%, while it was reduced in higher concentrations of 15 and 18%. However, normal embryos were not developed in the media containing 1.5 and 3% sucrose. Ninety-five percent of somatic embryos were regenerated to form the entire plantlets when they transferred onto the half-strength hormone-free MS culture medium containing 3% sucrose. Plantlets were also continued to grow normally under greenhouse condition.
"Carnation multiplication is done by stem cutting, seed multiplication, and micropropagation . Efficient systems have been reported for the regeneration of plants from leaf and stem segments (Kantia and Kothari 2002) and for the induction of direct somatic embryogenesis from leaf, petal, and anther explants (Pareek and Kothari 2003; Karami et al. 2006; XiaoPeng et al. 2008), but more efficient protocols are needed to increase the number of plants in a shorter period of time. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports on the optimum concentrations of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) to stimulate callus
growth and NAA; kinetin and silver nitrate (AgNO3) for callus redifferentiation in Dianthus caryophyllus L. Meristems were excised and placed in MS medium with 30g l−1 sucrose and 9.0μM 2,4-d. Callus clusters were transferred to MS medium containing NAA (0, 1.7, 3.3, and 5.0μM) and BA (0, 1.7, 3.3, and 5.0μM)
for proliferation and to MS medium with 30g l−1 sucrose, 2.5g l−1 phytagel, kinetin (0, 33, and 66μM); NAA (0, 7.95, and 15.9μM) and AgNO3 (0, 23.54 and 47.08μM) for shoot and root induction. Treatments were applied according to a Box–Behnken design. After callus
growth and redifferentiation, plants were incubated in the greenhouse at 18 ± 2°C for 4wk and at 20–26°C for 4wk. Finally,
plants were changed to near-commercial greenhouse conditions with different day (30–35°C) and night (16–24°C) temperatures.
Results showed better callus growth at higher NAA concentrations. A maximum callus weight was found with 5.0μM NAA but without
BA. A maximum of 78% calluses with shoots was obtained with 15.9μM NAA, 47.08μM AgNO3, and 0.74μM kinetin and 58% with roots with 15.7μM NAA and 47.08μM AgNO3, but without kinetin. The shoots obtained showed little hyperhydricity. Vigorous plants were obtained after gradual acclimatization
with an 80% survival rate under nursery conditions.
"Carbohydrates partly exert their effect on growth and morphogenesis by their nutritional value, and partly through their varying osmotic potential, which influences the rate of cell division or the degree of morphogenesis of the cells (Sotiropoulos et al., 2006). In addition, carbon sources perform function in synthetic pathway of many compounds, build blocks of macromolecules and may control several developmental processes in the cell (Karami et al., 2006). Hence, carbohydrates are of prime importance for In vitro shoot proliferation, a high energy requiring process (Thorpe, 1980; Jain & Babbar, 2003). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Competence of two apple rootstocks M. 9 and M. 26 for in vitro shoot proliferation was appraised using a miscellany of carbon sources i.e., sorbitol, sucrose, glucose and mannitol which were employed @ 0, 5, 15, 25, 35 and 45 g l -1 . The most auspicious outcome was achieved by sorbitol @ 35 g l -1 (T 9) being the optimal carbon source for both the genotypes. M. 26 had a positive interaction with sorbitol at this concentration to produce the best caulogenic response in terms of a paramount shoot length (3.01 cm) and an overriding fresh weight increment (402 mg) whereas M. 9 at the same concentration gave an eminent shoot number (9.8). Sucrose and glucose also had a positive carryover effect on apple shoots to some extent but proved to be inferior to sorbitol. Results yielded by mannitol were highly indigent in comparison to other carbon sources. Rootstocks exhibited an inconsistency regarding their aptitude for shoot proliferation. M. 26 was recognized as a better rootstock with an acquisition of 1.05 cm shoot length and 154.6 mg fresh weight while M. 9 stood better with maximum shoot number of 2.3.
Pakistan Journal of Botany 01/2009; 41(4). · 0.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis was achieved in Polyscias filicifolia. Embryogenic calluses were induced on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 0.5mg l−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 1.0mg l−1 benzylaminopurine (BAP; type I callus) and on MS medium with 2.0mg l−1 2,4-D and 0.01mg l−1 kinetin (type II callus) from leaf explants of a 2-yr-old plant. Primary somatic embryos (PSEs) developed after four passages
of suspension culture established from embryogenic callus when cultured in liquid half-strength MS medium (1/2 MS) without
growth regulators. PSEs in the cotyledonary stage were multiplied by adventitious embryogenesis. Single secondary somatic
embryos (SSEs) or their clusters developed at the base of PSE hypocotyls and regenerated into plantlets in a one-step process
on plant growth regulator-free 1/2 MS medium. Low sucrose concentration of 15g l−1 promoted development of normal SSEs. All SSEs regenerated into single, well-rooted plantlets on a Nitsch and Nitsch medium
supplemented with 0.5mg l−1 kinetin, 0.1mg l−1 indole-3-butyric acid, and 10mg l−1 adenine sulfate. Subsequent two subculture cycles on the same medium were necessary to obtain plantlets sufficiency developed
to allow successful transfer to the soil. Rooted plantlets were established in a peat mixture with 90% survival, with the
plants showing normal morphological characteristics.
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