Adenylosuccinase deficiency: an unusual cause of early-onset epilepsy associated with acquired microcephaly

Service de Radiologie Pédiatrique, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Avenue Hippocrate 10, B-1200 Bruxelles, Belgium
Brain and Development (Impact Factor: 1.54). 10/2000; 22(6):383-386. DOI: 10.1016/S0387-7604(00)00154-6

ABSTRACT Adenylosuccinase deficiency, an autosomal recessive inborn error of purine synthesis, was first described in 1984 by Jaeken and Van den Berghe (reviewed in J Inher Metab Dis 20;1997:193). The cardinal features are variable psychomotor delay often accompanied by epilepsy and autistic features. Diagnosis is made by detection of abnormal purine metabolites in body fluids. We report a girl who presented with early onset epilepsy, associated with acquired microcephaly and severe psychomotor retardation, as the most prominent symptoms.

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    ABSTRACT: Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL-E.C. deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disease of purines nucleotide synthesis affecting predominantly the central nervous system. We present a case of a 4.5-year-old boy with ADSL deficiency, developmental delay, hypotonia and epilepsy. In a series of three consecutive magnetic resonance examinations we observed not only reduced myelination and progressive atrophy of the brain that were reported before but also demyelination of previously normal white matter, correlating with clinical deterioration.
    European Journal of Radiology Extra 07/2009; DOI:10.1016/j.ejrex.2009.01.010
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    ABSTRACT: Adenylosuccinate lyase ADSL) deficiency is a defect of purine metabolism affecting purinosome assembly and reducing metabolite fluxes through purine de novo synthesis and purine nucleotide recycling pathways. Biochemically this defect manifests by the presence in the biologic fluids of two dephosphorylated substrates of ADSL enzyme: succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr) and succinyladenosine (S-Ado). More than 80 individuals with ADSL deficiency have been identified, but incidence of the disease remains unknown. The disorder shows a wide spectrum of symptoms from slowly to rapidly progressing forms. The fatal neonatal form has onset from birth and presents with fatal neonatal encephalopathy with a lack of spontaneous movement, respiratory failure, and intractable seizures resulting in early death within the first weeks of life. Patients with type I (severe form) present with a purely neurologic clinical picture characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, microcephaly, early onset of seizures, and autistic features. A more slowly progressing form has also been described (type II, moderate or mild form), as having later onset, usually within the first years of life, slight to moderate psychomotor retardation and transient contact disturbances. Diagnosis is facilitated by demonstration of SAICAr and S-Ado in extracellular fluids such as plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and/or followed by genomic and/or cDNA sequencing and characterization of mutant proteins. Over 50 ADSL mutations have been identified and their effects on protein biogenesis, structural stability and activity as well as on purinosome assembly were characterized. To date there is no specific and effective therapy for ADSL deficiency.
    Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 08/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.1007/s10545-014-9755-y · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of purine metabolism. Patients may present with a wide range of neurological symptoms. Head imaging abnormalities have been reported only rarely in the scientific literature and include atrophy of the cerebral cortex, corpus callosum, cerebellar vermis, lack of myelination, delayed myelination, anomalies of the white matter, and lissencephaly. The pathogenesis of abnormalities remains unknown. To further the understanding of the spectrum of brain abnormalities associated with ADSL deficiency, we examined the magnetic resonance findings in seven Polish patients with different clinical phenotypes and genotypes. Head MRI showed impaired white matter myelination with various degrees of global supra- and infratentorial white matter loss including widening of the lateral ventricles, enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces, atrophy of the cerebrum, hypoplasia of the cerebellar hemispheres and enlargement of the cisterna magna, and white matter abnormal hyperintense signal on T(2)-weighted sequences. We recommend performing a detailed analysis of urine and plasma purine metabolites in patients who have neurological findings, including developmental delay, microcephaly, autistic features, neonatal encephalopathy, and seizures especially if MRI findings such as delayed or lack of myelination, white matter abnormal signal, and atrophy of the cerebrum and/or cerebellum are also present. Greater awareness of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency among general pediatricians, neonatologists, pediatric neurologists, and also radiologists is the key to identifying the disorder at an early stage.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 05/2011; 171(1):131-8. DOI:10.1007/s00431-011-1503-9 · 1.98 Impact Factor