Maes M. Evidence for an immune response in major depression: a review and hypothesis. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 19: 11-38

Department of Psychiatry, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OHIO, USA
Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.69). 02/1995; 19(1):11-38. DOI: 10.1016/0278-5846(94)00101-M


1.1. This paper reviews recent findings on cellular and humoral immunity and inflammatory markers in depression.2.2. It is shown that major depression may be accompanied by systemic immune activation or an inflammatory response with involvement of phagocytic (monocytes, neutrophils) cells, T cell activation, B cell proliferation, an “acute” phase response with increased plasma levels of positive and decreased levels of negative acute phase proteins, higher autoantibody (antinuclear, antiphospholipid) titers, increased prostaglandin secretion, disorders in exopeptidase enzymes, such as dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and increased production of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells.3.3. It is hypothesized that increased monocytic production of interleukins (Il-1β and Il-6) in severe depression may constitute key phenomena underlying the various aspects of the immune and “acute” phase response, while contributing to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalaxis hyperactivity, disorders in serotonin metabolism, and to the vegetative symptoms (i.e. the sickness behavior) of severe depression.

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Available from: Michael Maes, Nov 11, 2015
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    • "Studies were also excluded if patients suffered from a significant comorbid disease (N = 31), or if the study lacked a proper control group (N = 16), if inflammatory marker measurements had been assayed in fluids other than venous blood (N = 5) or if in vitro stimulated cytokines had been used to assess immune function (N = 3). In total, 58 articles met the inclusion criteria: 20 studies for CRP (Cizza et al., 2009; Dome et al., 2009; Frodl et al., 2012; Häfner et al., 2008; Hornig et al., 1998; Hughes et al., 2012; Joyce et al., 1992; Karlovic et al., 2012; Keri et al., 2014; Kling et al., 2007; Lanquillon et al., 2000; O'Donovan et al., 2013; Piletz et al., 2009; Rothermundt et al., 2001; Rudolf et al., 2014; Sluzewska et al., 1996; Thomas et al., 2005; Tuglu et al., 2003; Weinstein et al., 2010; Zahn et al., 2013), 31 studies for IL-6 (Basterzi et al., 2005; Carvalho et al., 2013; Dahl et al., 2014; Dhabhar et al., 2009; Dunjic-Kostic et al., 2013; Euteneuer et al., 2011; Fitzgerald et al., 2006; Fornaro et al., 2011; Frodl et al., 2012; Hennings et al., 2013; Hughes et al., 2012; Kagaya et al., 2001; Karlovic et al., 2012; Keri et al., 2014; Leo et al., 2006; Maes et al., 1997, 1995a,b; Mikova et al., 2001; Motivala et al., 2005; O'Brien et al., 2007; O'Donovan et al., 2013; Pavon et al., 2006; Pike and Irwin, 2006; Rudolf et al., 2014; Simon et al., 2008; Sluzewska et al., 1996; Voderholzer et al., 2012; Weinstein et al., 2010; Yang et al., 2007; Yoshimura et al., 2010), 31 studies for TNF-a (Dahl et al., 2014; Diniz et al., 2010b; Dome et al., 2009; Dunjic-Kostic et al., 2013; Eller et al., 2009, 2008; Euteneuer et al., 2011; Fitzgerald et al., 2006; Fornaro et al., 2013; Grassi-Oliveira et al., 2009; Hornig et al., 1998; Huang and Lee, 2007; Hughes et al., 2012; Kagaya et al., 2001; Karlovic et al., 2012; Leo et al., 2006; Li et al., 2013; Maes et al., 2012a,b; Mikova et al., 2001; Narita et al., 2006; O'Brien et al., 2007; O'Donovan et al., 2013; Pavon et al., 2006; Piletz et al., 2009; Schmidt et al., 2014; Simon et al., 2008; Sutcigil et al., 2007; Tuglu et al., 2003; Weinstein et al., 2010; Yang et al., 2007) and 14 studies for IL-1b (Dahl et al., 2014; Diniz et al., 2010a; Fornaro et al., 2013; Hernandez et al., 2008, 2013; Huang and Lee, 2007; Hughes et al., 2012; Kagaya et al., 2001; Leo et al., 2006; Pavon et al., 2006; Piletz et al., 2009; Simon et al., 2008; Thomas et al., 2005; Yang et al., 2007). Supplementary Table 2 presents the descriptive and quality data of each study and Supplementary Table 3 shows the specific inclusion and exclusion criteria used in these studies. "
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