Cisplatin induces cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of nucleotide excision repair factors among spiral ganglion neurons
ABSTRACT Genomic DNA is a high-affinity target for the antineoplastic molecule cisplatin. Cell survival from cisplatin DNA damage is dependent on removal of cisplatin-DNA adducts by nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways. The rate-limiting steps in the NER pathways are DNA damage identification and verification. These steps are accomplished by xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C and A (XPC and XPA) and RNA polymerase II. Unlike RNA polymerase II, XPC and XPA have no known cellular function beyond DNA repair. Cisplatin is known to damage spiral ganglion neurons at the basal coil of the cochlea therefore it was posited that cisplatin may target their DNA and mobilize XPC and XPA. Female Fisher344 rats were given two, four day cycles of cisplatin (2 mg/kg) or saline, separated by a 10 day rest period. A 2 × 3 × 2 factorial design, consisting of two treatment conditions (cisplatin and saline treatment), three survival times (5, 19 and 22 days) and two analysis methods (quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry) was employed to evaluate the expression and distribution of XPC and XPA. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed statistically significant differences in cochlear XPC and XPA mRNA levels after cisplatin treatment at all times except day 22 for XPA. Immunohistochemistry revealed that a proportion (∼50%) of spiral ganglion neurons in control rats showed cytoplasmic expression of XPC and XPA. After cisplatin treatment, a similar proportion (∼50%) of spiral ganglion neurons showed increased nuclear expression of XPC and XPA, which appears to represent translocation from the cytoplasm. Basal coil spiral ganglion neurons translocated XPC and XPA at later treatment cycles and with less magnitude than apical coil neurons after cisplatin treatment. Therefore, it is suggested that cisplatin treatment induces nuclear translocation of NER proteins among spiral ganglion neurons and that this nuclear translocation is less efficient at the base relative to the apex.
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin is one of the most effective anticancer agents widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. It is generally considered as a cytotoxic drug which kills cancer cells by damaging DNA and inhibiting DNA synthesis. How cells respond to cisplatin-induced DNA damage plays a critical role in deciding cisplatin sensitivity. Cisplatin-induced DNA damage activates various signaling pathways to prevent or promote cell death. This paper summarizes our current understandings regarding the mechanisms by which cisplatin induces cell death and the bases of cisplatin resistance. We have discussed various steps, including the entry of cisplatin inside cells, DNA repair, drug detoxification, DNA damage response, and regulation of cisplatin-induced apoptosis by protein kinases. An understanding of how various signaling pathways regulate cisplatin-induced cell death should aid in the development of more effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer.Journal of nucleic acids 01/2010; 2010.