Sustaining hypercitrullinemia, hypercholesterolemia and augmented oxidative stress in Japanese children with aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2-citrin-deficiency even during the silent period. Mol Genet Metab
Neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD) shows diverse metabolic abnormalities such as urea cycle dysfunction together with citrullinemia, galactosemia, and suppressed gluconeogenesis. Such abnormalities apparently resolve during the first year of life. However, metabolic profiles of the silent period remain unknown. We analyzed oxidative stress markers and profiles of amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids in 20 asymptomatic children with aspartate/glutamate carrier isoform 2-citrin-deficiency aged 1–10 years, for whom tests showed normal liver function. Despite normal plasma ammonia levels, the affected children showed higher blood levels of ornithine (p < 0.001) and citrulline (p < 0.01)––amino acids involved in the urea cycle––than healthy children. Blood levels of nitrite/nitrate, metabolites of nitric oxide (NO), and asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibiting NO production from arginine were not different between these two groups. Blood glucose, galactose, pyruvate, and lactate levels after 4–5 h fasting were not different between these groups, but the affected group showed a significantly higher lactate to pyruvate ratio. Low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the affected group were 1.5 times higher than those in the controls. Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein apparently increased in the affected children; their levels of urinary oxidative stress markers such as 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine and acrolein-lysine were significantly higher than those in the controls. Results of this study showed, even during the silent period, sustained hypercitrullinemia, hypercholesterolemia, and augmented oxidative stress in children with citrin deficiency.
"The SOD activity was determined by spectrophotometry at 505 nm (RANSOD kit; Randox Laboratories Ltd; Antrim, UK). Catalase activity was determined as described previously . In brief, we monitored the decrease in absorbance at 240 nm in a reaction medium containing 20 mM H 2 O 2 , 10 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and 0.1–0.3 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies have looked at optimal or acceptable serum phenylalanine levels in later life in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This study examined the oxidative stress status of adolescents and adults with PKU. Forty PKU patients aged over fifteen years were enrolled, and were compared with thirty age-matched controls. Oxidative stress markers, anti-oxidant enzyme activities in erythrocytes, and blood anti-oxidant levels were examined. Nitric oxide (NO) production was also examined as a measure of oxidative stress. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive species and serum malondialdehyde-modified LDL levels were significantly higher in PKU patients than control subjects, and correlated significantly with serum phenylalanine level (P<0.01). Plasma total anti-oxidant reactivity levels were significantly lower in the patient group, and correlated negatively with phenylalanine level (P<0.001). Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were higher and correlated significantly with phenylalanine level (P<0.01). Glutathione peroxidase activity was lower and correlated negatively with phenylalanine level (P<0.001). The oxidative stress score calculated from these six parameters was significantly higher in patients with serum phenylalanine of 700-800 μmol/l. Plasma anti-oxidant substances, beta-carotene, and coenzyme Q(10) were also lower (P<0.001), although the decreases did not correlate significantly with the phenylalanine level. Serum nitrite/nitrate levels, as stable NO products, were higher together with low serum asymmetric dimethylarginine, as an endogenous NO inhibitor. Oxidative stress status is closely linked with serum phenylalanine levels. Phenylalanine level in should be maintained PKU below 700-800 μmol/l even in adult patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We proposed a vertical spring as a mechanical element for
effective use of device area in micromachines. The experiments over
shadow evaporation process showed that the shape of trench-hole
cross-section is the most important parameter for a flat spring
fabrication. To demonstrate the usefulness of the vertical spring, we
adapted the vertical spring to micromirror array, and the fabricated
micromirror operated successfully over 200 million cycles without any
Broadband Optical Networks and Technologies: An Emerging Reality/Optical MEMS/Smart Pixels/Organic Optics and Optoelectronics. 1998 IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings; 08/1998
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we describe the historical aspects of citrin and citrin deficiency, characteristic food preference and food aversion of citrin-deficient subjects, and carbohydrate toxicity in relation to ureogenesis and issues of the conventional treatment procedures for hyperammonemia in citrin deficiency, leading to current treatment concepts for citrin deficiency. We also emphasize the importance of a citrin deficiency mouse model in elucidating the pathophysiology and developing novel therapeutics based on the pathophysiology, such as sodium pyruvate.
Igor V Rafalovich, Alexandria E Melendez, Joshua L Plotkin, Asami Tanimura, Shenyu Zhai, D James Surmeier
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