Large-scale production of N,N′-diBoc-dityrosine and dityrosine by HRP-catalyzed N-Boc-l-tyrosine oxidation and one-step chromatographic purification

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, South Korea
Process Biochemistry 01/2011; DOI: 10.1016/j.procbio.2010.07.031

ABSTRACT Dityrosine (DY) can be used as a biomarker to detect oxidative protein damage and selective proteolysis. It is generally prepared by horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed oxidation of l-tyrosine (Y) followed by multistep chromatographic separations. In this study, we present an alternative method for the preparation of DY by HRP-catalyzed synthesis of N,N′-diBoc-dityrosine (DBDY) from N-Boc-l-tyrosine (BY). The presence of the tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc) group ensured that the fraction of further oxidized by-products (e.g., trimers and pulcherosine) was quite low. The yield of DBDY (37.5%) was comparable to that reported for DY (> 26%). DBDY could be purified by a simple one-step silica column chromatography procedure that resulted in a purity of 89.7%. DBDY is considered to be better than DY for subsequent chemical reactions (for binding to polymers, amino acids, drugs, antibodies, etc.) because such reactions can be selectively performed by using the carboxylic acid and amine groups in the following sequence: first, the carboxylic acid groups are used; next, the Boc groups are removed; and finally, the amino groups are used. To prepare DY, the Boc groups in DBDY were simply and completely removed by treatment with trifluoroacetic acid.

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    ABSTRACT: N,N'-diBoc-dityrosine (DBDY), which was synthesized by the oxidative C-C coupling of 2 N-Boc-L-tyrosine molecules, was conjugated with two isoniazid (INH) molecules. Due to the quenching effect of INH, DBDY-(INH)(2) lacks the fluorescence of DBDY. As such, it was tested for use in the detection of proteases by measuring fluorescence recovery. In this study, serine proteases (chymotrypsin, trypsin, subtilisin, and proteinase K), metalloproteases (thermolysin and carboxypeptidase A, dispase, and collagenase), aspartic proteases (pepsin and aspergillopepsin) and cysteine proteases (papain and chymopapain) were chosen. Reported optimum assay conditions were chosen for each enzyme. Only papain and chymopapain catalyzed the hydrolysis of DBDY-(INH)(2) and led to fluorescence recovery, possibly due to their extensive binding sites and the INH-mediated inhibition of metalloproteases and aspartic proteases.
    Analytica chimica acta 04/2012; 723:101-7. · 4.31 Impact Factor