Mutagenicity of aristolochic acid in the lambda/lacZ transgenic mouse (Muta™Mouse)
ABSTRACT Aristolochic acid (AA) is found in a plant that causes urothelial carcinomas in patients with Chinese herb nephropathy (CHN). To evaluate the in vivo mutagenicity of AA, we analysed the mutant frequency (MF) in the lacZ and cII gene of 10 organs of the lambda/lacZ transgenic mouse (Muta™Mouse) after intragastric treatment with AA (15 mg/kg per week × 4). Simultaneously, the clastogenicity of AA was evaluated by the peripheral blood micronucleus assay. The nature of the mutations induced by AA was revealed by the sequence analysis of the cII gene, which is also a phenotypically selectable marker in the lambda transgene. MFs in the target organs-forestomach, kidney, and bladder of AA-treated mice were significantly higher than those of control mice (forestomach 33- and 15-fold; kidney 10- and 9-fold; bladder 16- and 31-fold, for the lacZ and cII, respectively). The MFs in non-target organs, except the colon, showed only slight increases. Sequence analysis of cII mutants in target organs revealed that AA induced mainly A:T to T:A transversions whereas G:C to A:T transitions at CpG sites predominated among spontaneous mutations. These results suggested that AA, which is activated by cytochrome P450 and peroxidase to form cyclic nitrenium ions that bind to deoxyadenine, caused the A to T transversions in the target organs of mice.
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ABSTRACT: Arisolochiae species plants containing aristolochic acids I and II (AA I and AA II) are well known to cause aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). Recently, there are various approaches to use AAs-containing herbs after the removal of their toxic factors. However, there is little information about genotoxicity of Arisolochiae manshuriensis Kom. (AMK) per se. To obtain safety information for AMK, its genotoxicity was evaluated in accordance with OECD guideline. To evaluate genotoxicity of AMK, we tested bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration test, and micronucleus test. Here, we also determined the amounts of AA I and II in AMK (2.85 ± 0.08 and 0.50 ± 0.02 mg/g extract, resp.). In bacterial reverse mutation assay, AMK dose-dependently increased revertant colony numbers in TA98, TA100 and TA1537 regardless of metabolic activation. AMK increased the incidence of chromosomal aberration in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells, but there was no statistically significant difference. The incidences of micronucleus in bone marrow erythrocyte were significantly increased in mice after oral administration of AMK (5000 mg/kg), comparing with those of vehicle group (P < 0.05). The results of three standard tests suggest that the genotoxicity of AMK is directly related to the AAs contents in AMK.Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012:412736. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: DNA adducts of aristolochic acid II: total synthesis and site-specific mutagenesis studies in mammalian cells.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aristolochic acids I and II (AA-I, AA-II) are found in all Aristolochia species. Ingestion of these acids either in the form of herbal remedies or as contaminated wheat flour causes a dose-dependent chronic kidney failure characterized by renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. In approximately 50% of these cases, the condition is accompanied by an upper urinary tract malignancy. The disease is now termed aristolochic acid nephropathy (AAN). AA-I is largely responsible for the nephrotoxicity while both AA-I and AA-II are genotoxic. DNA adducts derived from AA-I and AA-II have been isolated from renal tissues of patients suffering from AAN. We describe the total synthesis, de novo, of the dA and dG adducts derived from AA-II, their incorporation site-specifically into DNA oligomers and the splicing of these modified oligomers into a plasmid construct followed by transfection into mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Analysis of the plasmid progeny revealed that both adducts blocked replication but were still partly processed by DNA polymerase(s). Although the majority of coding events involved insertion of correct nucleotides, substantial misincorporation of bases also was noted. The dA adduct is significantly more mutagenic than the dG adduct; both adducts give rise, almost exclusively, to misincorporation of dA, which leads to AL-II-dA-->T and AL-II-dG-->T transversions.Nucleic Acids Research 10/2009; 38(1):339-52. · 8.03 Impact Factor