Two long-term no-till corn production studies, representing different soil texture, consistently showed higher leaching of atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine] to groundwater in a silt loam soil than in a sandy loam soil. A laboratory leaching study was initiated using intact soil cores from the two sites to determine whether the soil texture could account for the observed differences. Six intact soil cores (16 cm dia by 20 cm high) were collected from a four-year old no-till corn plots at each of the two locations (ca. 25 km apart). All cores were mounted in funnels and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was measured. Three cores (from each soil texture) with the lowest Ksat were mixed and repacked. All cores were surface treated with [ring−14C] atrazine, subjected to simulated rainfall at a constant intensity until nearly 3 pore volume of leachate was collected and analyzed for a total of . On an average, nearly 40% more of atrazine was leached through the intact silt loam than the sandy loam soil cores. For both the intact and repacked cores, the initial atrazine leaching rates were higher in the silt loam than the sandy loam soils, indicating that macropore flow was a more prominent mechanism for atrazine leaching in the silt loam soil. A predominance of macropore flow in the silt loam soil, possibly due to greater aggregate stability, may account for the observed leaching patterns for both field and laboratory studies.
"Atrazine, one of the most extensively used herbicides, is widely considered persistent and has been detected in water bodies with direct and indirect effects on growth and activity of aquatic organisms (Graymore et al., 2001). Soil texture and management practices may influence sorption and movement of herbicides (Sadeghi et al., 2000; Rae et al., 1998). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surfactants in herbicide formulations eventually enter soil and may disrupt various processes. Research examined effects on nutrient uptake in corn caused by surfactants, herbicides, and surfactant-herbicide combinations applied to silt loam and silty clay loam soils in the greenhouse. Surfactants evaluated were Activator 90, Agri-Dex, and Thrust; herbicides were glyphosate, atrazine, and bentazon. Corn was planted in fertilized soils with moisture content maintained for optimum growth. Foliage (V8 growth stage) was collected for elemental analyses. Nutrient uptake differed with soil texture. Nutrient uptake from silty clay loam was more affected by surfactants and/or herbicides than in silt loam. Potassium uptake was significantly (P = 0.05) decreased in silt loam only by Thrust but uptake of phosphorus (P), potassium (K) calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) decreased by ≤30% in silty clay loam treated with surfactants. Surfactants and/or herbicides may interact with soil texture to affect nutrient uptake. Long-term field studies to validate changes in nutrient uptake and grain yields after annual applications of surfactants plus herbicides are needed.
"On the other hand, Veeh et al. (1994) showed that the transport of Br − and chlorsulfuron is similar through undisturbed or sieved soil columns. Sadeghi et al. (2000) found a faster transport of atrazine in either the undisturbed or sieved soils depending upon the soil's physico-chemical properties. Finally, Griessbach et al. (1998) showed that the leaching of a silicone-polyether was lower in undisturbed than in sieved soil columns. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, displacement experiments of isoproturon were conducted in disturbed and undisturbed columns of a silty clay loam soil under similar rainfall intensities. Solute transport occurred under saturated conditions in the undisturbed soil and under unsaturated conditions in the sieved soil because of a greater bulk density of the compacted undisturbed soil compared to the sieved soil. The objective of this work was to determine transport characteristics of isoproturon relative to bromide tracer. Triplicate column experiments were performed with sieved (structure partially destroyed to simulate conventional tillage) and undisturbed (structure preserved) soils. Bromide experimental breakthrough curves were analyzed using convective-dispersive and dual-permeability (DP) models (HYDRUS-1D). Isoproturon breakthrough curves (BTCs) were analyzed using the DP model that considered either chemical equilibrium or non-equilibrium transport. The DP model described the bromide elution curves of the sieved soil columns well, whereas it overestimated the tailing of the bromide BTCs of the undisturbed soil columns. A higher degree of physical non-equilibrium was found in the undisturbed soil, where 56% of total water was contained in the slow-flow matrix, compared to 26% in the sieved soil. Isoproturon BTCs were best described in both sieved and undisturbed soil columns using the DP model combined with the chemical non-equilibrium. Higher degradation rates were obtained in the transport experiments than in batch studies, for both soils. This was likely caused by hysteresis in sorption of isoproturon. However, it cannot be ruled out that higher degradation rates were due, at least in part, to the adopted first-order model. Results showed that for similar rainfall intensity, physical and chemical non-equilibrium were greater in the saturated undisturbed soil than in the unsaturated sieved soil. Results also suggested faster transport of isoproturon in the undisturbed soil due to higher preferential flow and lower fraction of equilibrium sorption sites.
"Concerns also exist about exceedingly efficient transport pathways created by possible interconnectivity between macropores and subsurface drains. Preferential flow significantly influences the transport of solutes and pesticides in both field and laboratory studies (Steenhuis et al., 1990; Munster et al., 1995; Elliott et al., 1998; Kladivko et al., 1999; Sadeghi et al., 2000). Field studies have indicated immediate breakthrough of solutes and pesticides in subsurface drainage by a few, drain-connected macropores (Steenhuis et al., 1990; Rothstein et al., 1996; Shalit and Steenhuis, 1996; Villholth et al., 1998; Shipitalo and Gibbs, 2000). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few studies exist that evaluate or apply pesticide transport models based on measured parent and metabolite concentrations in fields with subsurface drainage. Furthermore, recent research suggests pesticide transport through exceedingly efficient direct connections, which occur when macropores are hydrologically connected to subsurface drains, but this connectivity has been simulated at only one field site in Allen County, Indiana. This research evaluates the Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM) in simulating the transport of a parent compound and its metabolite at two subsurface drained field sites. Previous research used one of the field sites to test the original modification of the RZWQM to simulate directly connected macropores for bromide and the parent compound, but not for the metabolite. This research will evaluate RZWQM for parent/metabolite transformation and transport at this first field site, along with evaluating the model at an additional field site to evaluate whether the parameters for direct connectivity are transferable and whether model performance is consistent for the two field sites with unique soil, hydrologic, and environmental conditions. Isoxaflutole, the active ingredient in BALANCE® herbicide, was applied to both fields. Isoxaflutole rapidly degrades into a metabolite (RPA 202248). This research used calibrated RZWQM models for each field based on observed subsurface drain flow and/or edge of field conservative tracer concentrations in subsurface flow. The calibrated models for both field sites required a portion (approximately 2% but this fraction may require calibration) of the available water and chemical in macropore flow to be routed directly into the subsurface drains to simulate peak concentrations in edge of field subsurface drain flow shortly after chemical applications. Confirming the results from the first field site, the existing modification for directly connected macropores continually failed to predict pesticide concentrations on the recession limbs of drainage hydrographs, suggesting that the current strategy only partially accounts for direct connectivity. Thirty-year distributions of annual mass (drainage) loss of parent and metabolite in terms of percent of isoxaflutole applied suggested annual simulated percent losses of parent and metabolite (3.04 and 1.31%) no greater in drainage than losses in runoff on nondrained fields as reported in the literature.
JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 11/2007; 43(6):1359 - 1372. DOI:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2007.00116.x · 1.35 Impact Factor
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