Influence of soil texture and tillage on herbicide transport
ABSTRACT Two long-term no-till corn production studies, representing different soil texture, consistently showed higher leaching of atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine] to groundwater in a silt loam soil than in a sandy loam soil. A laboratory leaching study was initiated using intact soil cores from the two sites to determine whether the soil texture could account for the observed differences. Six intact soil cores (16 cm dia by 20 cm high) were collected from a four-year old no-till corn plots at each of the two locations (ca. 25 km apart). All cores were mounted in funnels and the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was measured. Three cores (from each soil texture) with the lowest Ksat were mixed and repacked. All cores were surface treated with [ring−14C] atrazine, subjected to simulated rainfall at a constant intensity until nearly 3 pore volume of leachate was collected and analyzed for a total of . On an average, nearly 40% more of atrazine was leached through the intact silt loam than the sandy loam soil cores. For both the intact and repacked cores, the initial atrazine leaching rates were higher in the silt loam than the sandy loam soils, indicating that macropore flow was a more prominent mechanism for atrazine leaching in the silt loam soil. A predominance of macropore flow in the silt loam soil, possibly due to greater aggregate stability, may account for the observed leaching patterns for both field and laboratory studies.
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ABSTRACT: In the Midwestern United States, winter hilling, consisting of two tillage activities per year, is required in vinifera-grape vineyards for winter protection. However, this practice often leads to severe soil erosion and pesticide offsite movement. The effectiveness of wheat straw mulch as a replacement for soil mounding was investigated as a way of providing winter protection and to mitigate pesticide leaching and runoff. A laboratory experiment was conducted where simazine was applied to wheat straw or bare soil and then followed by simulated rainfalls. When compared with bare soil, straw reduced simazine leaching and runoff by 40 and 68%, respectively. Adsorption or interception, or both, of simazine by straw were responsible for this effect. Additionally, straw reduced soil erosion by 95% and would largely reduce simazine runoff associated with sediment displacement. The first simulated rainfall contributed 70 and 34% of total simazine runoff from bare soil and straw, respectively. In conclusion, mulching with straw during winter months to provide winter protection could be an effective practice for controlling simazine offsite movement and soil erosion in vinifera vineyards. Nomenclature: Simazine; grape, Vitis vinifera L.; wheat, Triticum spp.Weed Science 10/2011; · 1.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Modeling preferential flow has been a concern of many academic fields in the past 30 years all over the world and helps to prevent groundwater contamination. A dual-porosity model, MACRO, was evaluated for short-term (less than 2 days) simulation of water flow and non-reactive solute (chloride) transport through the profile of six plots in well-structured Maury silt loam soil. Water flow in micropores is calculated by the Richards' equation while simple gravity flow is assumed in the macropores. Solute transport in the micropores is calculated by the convection-disper - sion equation (CDE) while the dispersion and diffusion in the CDE is neglected for the solute transport in the macro - pores. The applied water and chloride reached the boom of the profile during the 2 and 1-hour(s) application periods in studies 2 and 3, respectively. There is a strong indication of macropore flow in this soil. Based on the statistical crite - ria, the model accurately simulated water flow and solute transport with depth and time in all plots. The mean values of three statistical parameters (coefficient of residual mass, model efficiency, and correlation coefficient) for water and chloride transport were -0.0014, 0.791, 0.903 and 0.0333, 0.923, 0.956, respectively. Preliminary studies showed that the model could not simulate flow and transport well enough with the one-domain flow concept. In the two-domain flow, effective diffusion path-length, boundary hydraulic conductivity, and boundary soil water pressure were the three most important parameters that control flow and transport between the two domains. The effective diffusion path-length re - presented the structural development with depth in the Maury silt loam soil.
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ABSTRACT: Reducing tillage intensity through the implementation of conservation practices is a way to reach a more sustainable agriculture. Reducing tillage is indeed an efficient way to control soil erosion and to decrease production costs. Nonetheless, the environmental impact of reduced tillage is not well known because conservation techniques may induce strong changes in soil physicochemical properties and biological activity. Knowledge on the fate of applied pesticides under conservation practices is particularly important from this point of view. We review here the advances in the understanding, quantification and prediction of the effects of tillage on pesticide fate in soils. We found the following major points: (1) for most dissipation processes such as retention, degradation and transfer, results of pesticide behaviour studies in soils are highly variable and sometimes contradictory. This variability is partially explained by the multiplicity of processes and contributive factors, by the variety of their interactions, and by their complex temporal and spatial dynamics. In addition, the lack of a thorough description of tillage systems and sampling strategy in most reports hampers any comprehensive interpretation of this variability. (2) Implementation of conservation tillage induces an increase in organic matter content at the soil surface and its gradual decrease with depth. This, in turn, leads to an increase in pesticide retention in the topsoil layer. (3) Increasing retention of pesticides in the topsoil layer under conservation tillage decreases the availability of the pesticides for biological degradation. This competition between retention and degradation leads to a higher persistence of pesticides in soils, though this persistence can be partially compensated for by a more intensive microbial activity under conservation tillage. (4) Despite strong changes in soil physical properties under conservation tillage, pesticide transfer is more influenced by initial soil conditions and climatic conditions than by tillage. Conservation tillage systems such as no-tillage improve macropore connectivity, which in turn increases pesticide leaching. We conclude that more knowledge is needed to fully understand the temporal and spatial dynamics of pesticide in soil, especially preferential flows, in order to improve the assessment of pesticide risks, and their relation to tillage management.Agronomy for Sustainable Development 01/2011; · 2.84 Impact Factor