Choleretic effect and intestinal propulsion of ‘mate’ (Ilexparaguariensis) and its substitutes or adulterants
ABSTRACT ‘Mate’ or ‘Yerba mate’ (Ilexparaguariensis, Aquifoliaceae) is a tonic and stimulant beverage widely used in South America. It is also traditionally used in gastrointestinal disorders as eupeptic and choleretic agent. Accordingly, the effect of decoctions of the leaves of I.paraguariensis and three of its substitutes or adulterants (Ilexbrevicuspis, Ilexargentina and Ilextheezans) on bile flow (BF) and intestinal propulsion were investigated. I.paraguariensis and I.brevicuspis induced an increase in BF, while the latter also enhanced intestinal transit. In contrast, neither I.argentina nor I.theezans exerted any effect on BF or intestinal propulsion. These results suggest that the therapeutic properties of I. paraguariensis will be affected when at least an adulterant is present in the final commercial product of Yerba mate.
SourceAvailable from: Dirce Pozebon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), a widely consumed beverage in South America, is now also used worldwide. This study deals with a novel approach of characterization and identification of yerba mate. Fifty four samples of yerba mate from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay were analyzed. A method was developed for determination of Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Sr and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES), and Li, Be, Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Co, As, Se, Rb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, La, Ce, Pb, Bi and U using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Principal component analysis (PCA), k-nearest neighbor (KNN), soft independent modeling class analogy (SIMCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and support vector machine discriminant analysis (SVM-DA) were used for multivariate analysis of the element concentrations found, in order to classify the yerba mate according to the country of origin. For all analyzed samples, the classification was 100% correct by means of SVM-DA when all investigated and detected elements (24) were considered.Microchemical Journal 11/2014; 117:164–171. DOI:10.1016/j.microc.2014.06.027 · 3.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present article is about a method of classification of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) from South America. Yerba mate samples were ground in cryogenic mill and the reflectance of milled samples in near infrared (NIR) was directly measured. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal components analysis (PCA), k-nearest neighbour (kNN), soft independent modelling class analogy (SIMCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), support vector machine discriminant analysis (SVM-DA) were used for multivariate analysis of the NIR reflectance spectra. Fifty four brands of yerba mate from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay were analyzed in order to classify the commercialized product according to the country of origin. For all intervals of the NIR reflectance spectra evaluated (4,435-4,318 cm-1; 4,358-4,200 cm-1; 4,436-4,200 cm-1; and 4,673-4,200 cm-1), the classification of all brands was 100% correct by SVM-DA. For KNN, classification was not 100% correct in any interval. Classification by PCA, HCA and SIMCA was 100% correct for the 4,435-4,318 cm-1 interval; for PLS-DA it was for the 4,358-4,200 cm-1 and 4,435 - 4,318 cm-1 intervals.Analytical methods 07/2014; 6(19). DOI:10.1039/C4AY01350F · 1.94 Impact Factor
06/2012; 72(2):268-275. DOI:10.4067/S0718-58392012000200016