Quantitative detection of bisphenol A and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether metabolites in human plasma by liquid chromatography–electrospray mass spectrometry
ABSTRACT Due to the ubiquity of epoxy resin compounds and their potential role in increasing the risk for reproductive dysfunction and cancer, the need for an assessment of human exposure is urgent. Therefore, we developed a method for measuring bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) metabolites in human blood samples using high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Human blood samples were processed using enzymatic deconjugation of the glucuronides followed by a novel sample preparation procedure using a solid-phase-cartridge column. This selective analytical method permits rapid detection of the metabolites, free BPA and a hydrolysis product of BADGE (BADGE-4OH) with detection limits in the low nanogram per milliliter range (0.1 ng ml−1 of BPA and 0.5 ng ml−1 of BADGE-4OH). The sample extraction was achieved by Oasis HLB column on gradient elution. The recoveries of BPA and BADGE-4OH added to human plasma samples were above 70.0% with a standard deviation of less than 5.0%. This selective, sensitive and accurate method will assist in elucidating potential associations between human exposure to epoxy-based compounds and adverse health effects.
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ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Due to the potential of this compound to disrupt normal endocrinal functions, concerns over human exposure to BPA have been raised. Although several studies have reported human exposure to BPA in Western nations, little is known about exposure in Asian countries. In this study, we determined total urinary BPA concentrations (free plus conjugated) in 296 urine samples (male/female: 153/143) collected from the general population in seven Asian countries, China, India, Japan, Korea, Kuwait, Malaysia, and Vietnam, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). On the basis of urinary BPA concentrations, we estimated the total daily intake. The results indicated that BPA was detected in 94.3% of the samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 30.1 ng/mL. The geometric mean concentration of BPA for the entire sample set from seven countries was 1.20 ng/mL. The highest concentration of BPA was found in samples from Kuwait (median: 3.05 ng/mL, 2.45 μg/g creatinine), followed by Korea (2.17 ng/mL, 2.40 μg/g), India (1.71 ng/mL, 2.09 μg/g), Vietnam (1.18 ng/mL, 1.15 μg/g), China (1.10 ng/mL, 1.38 μg/g), Malaysia (1.06 ng/mL, 2.31 μg/g), and Japan (0.95 ng/mL, 0.58 μg/g). Among the five age groups studied (≤ 19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, and ≥ 50 years), the highest median concentration of BPA was found in urine samples from the age group of ≤ 19 years. There was no significant difference in BPA concentrations between genders (male and female) or domicile of residence (rural and urban). The estimated median daily intakes of BPA for the populations in Kuwait, Korea, India, China, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Japan were 5.19, 3.69, 2.90, 2.13, 2.01, 1.80, and 1.61 μg/day, respectively. The estimated daily intake of BPA in the seven Asian countries was significantly lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This is the first study to document the occurrence of and human exposure to BPA in several Asian countries.Environmental Science & Technology 08/2011; 45(16):7044-50. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed to study five endocrine-disrupting compounds (4-n-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) in water. Different columns were tested; the chromatographic separation of the analytes was optimized on a Pinnacle DB biphenylic column with a water-acetonitrile gradient elution, which allowed the separation of the selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in less than 6 min. Quantitative analysis was performed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode; two transitions were chosen for each compound, using the most abundant for quantitation. Calibration curves using bisphenol A-d (16) as internal standard were drawn, showing good correlation coefficients (0.9993-0.9998). All figures of merit of the method were satisfactory; limits of detection were in the low pg range for all analytes. The method was then applied to the determination of the analytes in real water samples: to this aim, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the influent and in the effluent of a drinking water treatment plant in Liguria (Italy). The EDC level was rather low in the influent and negligible in the outlet, reflecting the expected function of the treatment plant.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 09/2010; 398(2):1025-34. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, which are used in many consumer products. Sources of human exposures to BPA include packaged and canned food products, indoor air, and dust ingestion. Information on the relative contributions of the pathways to BPA exposures is limited. In this study, we measured concentrations BPA in indoor dust collected from two locations in the Eastern United States and evaluated the contribution of dust to total BPA exposures. BPA was found in 95% of the dust samples analyzed (n = 56) at concentrations ranging from <0.5 to 10,200 ng/g (mean 843; median 422). The median values for BPA intake by way of the ingestion of dust by adults and toddlers were calculated to be 0.35 and 5.63 ng/kg body weight/day. These estimated exposure doses of BPA through dust ingestion are of the same order of magnitude as the recently reported low concentrations that induced health effects in laboratory animal studies. The contribution of dust to total human BPA intake was estimated to be <1%, however, suggesting that dietary intake is the predominant source of exposures in humans.Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 01/2011; 61(1):68-73. · 2.01 Impact Factor