Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival, and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer

SEAFDEC, Aquaculture Department, P.O. Box 256, Iloilo City, Philippines
Aquaculture (Impact Factor: 1.83). 03/1995; 131(1-2):125-133. DOI: 10.1016/0044-8486(94)00358-U

ABSTRACT The optimum protein-to-energy (P/E) ratio for juvenile sea bass (body weight, 1.34 ± 0.01 g) was determined using practical diets in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment. Three protein levels (35, 42.5 or 50%) and three lipid levels (5, 10 or 15%) at a fixed carbohydrate level of 20% were tested. P/E ratios of the diets ranged from 104 to 157 mg protein/kcal. The fish were reared for 54 days in 60-liter flow-through tanks with seawater at 32 p.p.t. and 29 °C. Fish fed the diet containing 50% protein and 15% lipid (P/E ratio of 125 mg/kcal) showed the highest weight gain and specific growth rate. Those fed the diet with 42.5% protein and 10% lipid (P/E ratio of 128 mg/kcal) showed comparable growth rate and significantly better condition factor, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein retention. Fish given diets containing 35% protein showed the poorest growth. Those fed diets with 5% lipid regardless of the protein content showed abnormal reddening of the fins, indicating essential fatty acid deficiency. Body fat increased with fat content of the diet and was inversely related to moisture. Fish given the diet containing 35% protein and 5% fat had the lowest body fat content and the highest ash and water content. The diet containing 42.5% protein and 10% lipid with P/E ratio of 128 mg protein/kcal was found to be optimum for juvenile seabass under the experimental conditions used in the study.

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    • "Higher PER observed in the T3H1 group may be due to low dietary protein which might have been utilized efficiently by P. hypophthalmus fingerlings for protein synthesis. Similarly higher PER were achieved in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) fed diets with 35% protein than 50% protein (Catacutan et al., 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of varying levels of protein/energy (P/E) ratio and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) supplemented diet on growth and flesh quality parameters of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fingerlings. One hundred and eighty fingerlings of uniform weight (4.32±0.08g) were randomly distributed into five treatment groups with three replications. The five different treatment groups were: Control -T0H0 (basal feed+117 mg/kcal, P/E ratio); T1H0 (basal feed +100 mg/kcal, P/E ratio); T2H0 (basal feed +133 mg/kcal, P/E ratio); T3H1 (basal feed +100 mg/kcal, P/E ratio+1% HUFA) and T4H1 (basal feed + 133 mg/kcal, P/E ratio+1% HUFA). Significantly higher (P<0.05) weight gain (WG) %, specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were observed in the T4H1 and T2H0 groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were lowest in the T4H1 group. T3H1 and T4H1 groups manifested significantly higher (P<0.05) value for flesh quality indices such as springiness, adhesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. Lowest hardness value was found in T4H1 group. Significantly higher (P<0.05) EPA and DHA deposition in fish muscle was observed in T4H1 group. Protease activity was higher in T4H1 group followed by T2H0 group and lowest in T1H0 group. Amylase activity was lower in T2H0 and T4H1 groups. Overall results revealed that P/E ratio of 133 mg/kcal with additional supplementation of 1% HUFA in the diet enhances growth and improves flesh quality of P. hypophthalmus fingerlings. The IJA appears exclusively as a peer-reviewed on-line open-access journal at To read papers free of charge, please register online at registration form. Sale of IJA papers is strictly forbidden. Sale of IJA papers is strictly forbidden.
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    • "), , (Lee and Kim, 2005). . , (Lie et al., 1988; Hillestad and Johnsen, 1994; Catacutan and Coloso, 1995). (Geurden et al., 1997; Lee and Lim, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: A feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for the growth of juvenile muddy loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. Eight experimental diets (designated as P20L7, P20L14, P30L7, P30L14, P40L7, P40L14, P50L7 and P50L14) were formulated to contain 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% protein with 7% and 14% lipid. Three replicate groups of muddy loach (1.5 g/fish) were fed one of the experimental diets ad libitum for 8 weeks. Survival of fish fed the P20L14 diet was lower than in other groups (P
    08/2013; 46(4). DOI:10.5657/KFAS.2013.0371
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    • "Thus, it is important to provide an adequate level and ratio of dietary protein and lipids in order to reduce catabolism of protein energy. Other studies showing that lipid content of fish fed high-energy diets is higher than that of fish fed low-energy diets (Hillestad and Johnsen, 1994; Catacutan and Coloso, 1995; Peres and Oliva-Teles, 1999; Kim and Lee, 2005). Despite of the origin of protein and lipids resources, high lipid diets especially from CO improved fish performance and feed utilization compared to low lipid diets when proper protein is provided. "
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    ABSTRACT: A 120-days trial with three dietary protein levels (30, 40 and 50%, respectively) and two dietary lipid concentrations (6 and 12%, respectively) was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein and lipid level for the growth, feed efficiency and survival rate of bay snook fingerlings, P. splendida (0.18±0.05 g initial body weight). A 2x3 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replicates was used. Whole body amino acids and fatty acids analyses were carried out for each diet and calculated growth performance, fed efficiency and survival rate. The results showed a higher survival rate. Final Body Weight (FBW), Feed Efficiency (FE), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and condition factor (K) was significantly affected by dietary protein level (p<0.05) and FBW, SGR, PER and K were significantly affected by dietary lipids levels (p<0.05). The amino acid composition in diets and whole body was similar and Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA) showed a similar trend; the Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) indicated that 30/12 and 50/12 diets presented high values in whole body, whereas monoenes presented a dissimilar pattern. The best growth was observed with 50/12 diets where the lipid source was corn oil.
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