Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival, and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer
ABSTRACT The optimum protein-to-energy (P/E) ratio for juvenile sea bass (body weight, 1.34 ± 0.01 g) was determined using practical diets in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment. Three protein levels (35, 42.5 or 50%) and three lipid levels (5, 10 or 15%) at a fixed carbohydrate level of 20% were tested. P/E ratios of the diets ranged from 104 to 157 mg protein/kcal. The fish were reared for 54 days in 60-liter flow-through tanks with seawater at 32 p.p.t. and 29 °C. Fish fed the diet containing 50% protein and 15% lipid (P/E ratio of 125 mg/kcal) showed the highest weight gain and specific growth rate. Those fed the diet with 42.5% protein and 10% lipid (P/E ratio of 128 mg/kcal) showed comparable growth rate and significantly better condition factor, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein retention. Fish given diets containing 35% protein showed the poorest growth. Those fed diets with 5% lipid regardless of the protein content showed abnormal reddening of the fins, indicating essential fatty acid deficiency. Body fat increased with fat content of the diet and was inversely related to moisture. Fish given the diet containing 35% protein and 5% fat had the lowest body fat content and the highest ash and water content. The diet containing 42.5% protein and 10% lipid with P/E ratio of 128 mg protein/kcal was found to be optimum for juvenile seabass under the experimental conditions used in the study.
SourceAvailable from: Narinder K Chadha[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Results of a cage aquaculture experiment conducted in Charan beel (a floodplain wetland), district Morigaon, Assam, India to determine optimum stocking density of Labeo rohita fry are discussed. Locally available bamboo and other low-cost construction materials were used for constructing a battery of ten cages (individual cage dimensions 2 × 2 × 2 m and effective water volume 6 m3). Labeo rohita fry (average length 4.0 ± 0.04 cm, average weight 1.05 ± 0.03 g) were stocked at five different stocking densities, viz. 50 (SD1), 100 (SD2), 150 (SD3), 200 (SD4) and 250 (SD5) fry/m3 with two replicates each. Reared fry were fed twice daily with a formulated feed containing 33.16 % crude protein for 2 months. The physico-chemical parameters of sediment were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by stocking density. Different stocking densities significantly (p 3. These responses remained unaffected (p > 0.05) at SD2 to SD4, but at SD5 there was significant reduction of growth. Feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent net protein utilization and energy retention value were adversely affected with the increase in stocking densities. The net benefit and benefit-cost ratio were highest in SD4. Therefore, economics of cage culture was considered as the most important criterion in judging SD4 (200 fry/m3) to be the optimal stocking density for raising L. rohita fry in cages in seasonally open floodplain wetlands of Assam, India.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India - Section B: Biological Sciences 03/2015; 85(1). DOI:10.1007/s40011-014-0343-6 · 0.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A 60-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid content on the growth performance and pigmentation of large yellow croaker Larimichthys croceus. Six isonitrogenous (44% crude protein) diets containing 75 mg/kg of astaxanthin were formulated to have graded contents of lipid (2.7, 5.1, 8.6, 11.7, 14.9 and 18.1%, respectively). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish (initial weight: 10.02 ± 0.02 g). The results showed that the survival rate (SR) was not significantly affected by dietary lipid contents. Fish fed with 2.7% of dietary lipid had the lowest weight gain rate (WGR). The highest value was found in fish fed diets with 11.7% of lipid. Lightness (L*) in the ventral skin was higher than that in the dorsal skin. There were no significant differences in redness (a⁎) or lightness among all treatments in both ventral and dorsal skin. Meanwhile, ventral skin yellowness was improved with increasing the dietary lipid content up to 11.7%. Carotenoid and melanin contents in the dorsal skin were not significantly affected by dietary lipid content. Carotenoids content in the ventral skin improved with increasing dietary lipid content up to 14.9%. High correlation was found between yellowness and the carotenoids content in the ventral skin. The minimum dietary lipid requirement was estimated to be 10.42% for growth. For skin pigmentation, this requirement was estimated to be 12.00% and 13.19% for ventral skin yellowness and carotenoids content, respectively.Aquaculture 10/2014; 434:355–361. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.08.035 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Efeito da relação energia: proteína digestível no crescimento e composição química de carcaça em dietas para alevinos de Betta splendens ABSTRACT The expansion in the market of ornamental fish depends on the intensification of production systems and the generation of appropriate technologies. Therefore, it is necessary to know the nutritional requirements of each species for the formulation of nutritionally balanced diets. A 30-day feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate the effects of different dietary digestible protein to energy ratio in diets for Betta splendens fingerlings. Fifty-six all-male B. splendens with 1.03 ± 0.11 g average weight were randomly stocked into 56 1L-aquaria in a completely randomized design with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, comprising eight treatments and seven replication. Each fish was considered an experimental unit. Diets were formulated to contain 28.0, 35.0, 42.0 and 49.0% DP and 3,600 and 3,200 kcal/kg DE. The growth parameters evaluated in this trial were weight gain (WG), feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and specific growth rate (SGR). No difference (P > 0.05) was observed for WG, FCR and SGR. However, a higher FI was observed for fish fed diets containing 42.0% DP (P < 0.05). A positive effect of DP and DE on PER was observed in this study. Generally, according to the increase of DE levels, a reduction on PER was observed. Based on this experimental condition, we recommend the use of 28.0% DP and 3,200 kcal/kg DE in diets for B. splendens. RESUMO A expansão no setor produtivo de peixes ornamentais depende da intensificação dos sistemas de produção e da geração de tecnologias adequadas. Por isso, é necessário o conhecimento das exigências nutricionais de cada espécie para a formulação de rações nutricionalmente adequadas. Neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar as diferentes relações energia:proteína digestível em dietas para alevinos de Betta splendens. O experimento teve a duração de 30 dias, sendo utilizados 56 alevinos machos de B. splendens com peso médio inicial de 1,03 ± 0,11 g. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualisado em arranjo fatorial, sendo composto por oito tratamentos e sete repetições, considerando-se um peixe como uma unidade experimental. Foram formuladas dietas práticas, cujos níveis de proteína digestível foram 28,0; 35,0; 42,0 e 49% e os níveis de energia digestível de 3.200 e 3.600 kcal/kg. Os parâmetros de desempenho produtivo avaliados foram: ganho em peso (GP), consumo de ração aparente (CRA), conversão alimentar aparente (CAA), taxa de eficiência protéica (TEP) e taxa de crescimento especifico (TCE). Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para GP, CAA, TCE, entretanto foi observado maior CRA para o nível de PD de 42% (P<0,05). A TEP apresentou diferença significativa, de maneira que quanto maior o nível de energia digestível menor a taxa de eficiência protéica. Com base nas condições experimentais deste estudo e na taxa de eficiência protéica, o melhor nível de PD e ED para melhor taxa de eficiência protéica foi de 28% e 3200 kcal/kg ED, respectivamente. Termos para indexação: Exigências protéicas, peixe ornamental, composição da carcaça, requerimentos energéticos, crescimento.Ciência e Agrotecnologia 11/2013; 38(1). DOI:10.1590/S1413-70542014000100009 · 0.73 Impact Factor