Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass (Lates calarifer)

SEAFDEC, Aquaculture Department, P.O. Box 256, Iloilo City, Philippines
Aquaculture (Impact Factor: 1.88). 03/1995; 131(1-2):125-133. DOI: 10.1016/0044-8486(94)00358-U


The optimum protein-to-energy (P/E) ratio for juvenile sea bass (body weight, 1.34 ± 0.01 g) was determined using practical diets in a 3 × 3 factorial experiment. Three protein levels (35, 42.5 or 50%) and three lipid levels (5, 10 or 15%) at a fixed carbohydrate level of 20% were tested. P/E ratios of the diets ranged from 104 to 157 mg protein/kcal. The fish were reared for 54 days in 60-liter flow-through tanks with seawater at 32 p.p.t. and 29 °C. Fish fed the diet containing 50% protein and 15% lipid (P/E ratio of 125 mg/kcal) showed the highest weight gain and specific growth rate. Those fed the diet with 42.5% protein and 10% lipid (P/E ratio of 128 mg/kcal) showed comparable growth rate and significantly better condition factor, protein efficiency ratio and apparent protein retention. Fish given diets containing 35% protein showed the poorest growth. Those fed diets with 5% lipid regardless of the protein content showed abnormal reddening of the fins, indicating essential fatty acid deficiency. Body fat increased with fat content of the diet and was inversely related to moisture. Fish given the diet containing 35% protein and 5% fat had the lowest body fat content and the highest ash and water content. The diet containing 42.5% protein and 10% lipid with P/E ratio of 128 mg protein/kcal was found to be optimum for juvenile seabass under the experimental conditions used in the study.

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    • "Author's personal copy Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is one of the most established aquaculture species in the Asian-Pacific region (Catacutan and Coloso 1995; Boonyaratpalin et al. 1998; Ravisankar and Thirunavukkarasu 2010) due to its good performance in captivity, stable price, and demand. As carnivorous species requires high protein in the diets, development of cost-effective diets based on alternative ingredients will be very helpful in sustaining the industry. "
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    ABSTRACT: The seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex. P. Silva, has a high potential to be one of the key ingredients in animal feeds based on its nutritional content and commercial availability. In a previous study, 6 % of raw seaweed meal was successfully included in the diets formulated for Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). In the present study, diets were formulated to include cooked seaweed meal at elevated levels from 6 to 22 % to investigate the effect of cooking in improving the dietary seaweed utilization. Diets with 0 % (SW0) or 6 % raw seaweed (SW6R) served as the control (CTRL) treatments. Seven experimental diets were fed to juvenile Asian seabass for 10 weeks at apparent satiation level. Diet stability and digestibility were also determined. Cooked seaweed meal performed better in term of water stability than the uncooked seaweed and water stability improved with increasing level of seaweed in the diets. Fish fed 6 % cooked seaweed (SW6) showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher weight gain and specific growth rate than other treatments and yielded the best feed conversion ratio. Except fish fed 22 % seaweed (SW22), survival (%) of experimental fish was not affected by the dietary seaweed inclusion. Dry matter apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) ranged from 59.03 to 73.65 %. Protein ADC of the diets decreased as seaweed inclusion level increased and ranged from 68.86 to 92.05 %. Lipid ADC was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among dietary treatments. In conclusion, cooked seaweed meal at 6 % dietary inclusion level is recommended for Asian seabass.
    Journal of Applied Phycology 08/2015; 27(4). DOI:10.1007/s10811-014-0454-8 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    • "gher protein containing diet fed to T4H1 and T2H0 groups . Higher PER observed in the T3H1 group may be due to low dietary protein which might have been utilized efficiently by P . hypophthalmus fingerlings for protein synthesis . Similarly higher PER were achieved in Asian seabass ( Lates calcarifer ) fed diets with 35% protein than 50% protein ( Catacutan et al . , 1995 ) ."

    The Israeli journal of aquaculture = Bamidgeh 07/2014; 66(2014). · 0.40 Impact Factor
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    • "Higher PER observed in the T3H1 group may be due to low dietary protein which might have been utilized efficiently by P. hypophthalmus fingerlings for protein synthesis. Similarly higher PER were achieved in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) fed diets with 35% protein than 50% protein (Catacutan et al., 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of varying levels of protein/energy (P/E) ratio and highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) supplemented diet on growth and flesh quality parameters of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fingerlings. One hundred and eighty fingerlings of uniform weight (4.32±0.08g) were randomly distributed into five treatment groups with three replications. The five different treatment groups were: Control -T0H0 (basal feed+117 mg/kcal, P/E ratio); T1H0 (basal feed +100 mg/kcal, P/E ratio); T2H0 (basal feed +133 mg/kcal, P/E ratio); T3H1 (basal feed +100 mg/kcal, P/E ratio+1% HUFA) and T4H1 (basal feed + 133 mg/kcal, P/E ratio+1% HUFA). Significantly higher (P<0.05) weight gain (WG) %, specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were observed in the T4H1 and T2H0 groups. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were lowest in the T4H1 group. T3H1 and T4H1 groups manifested significantly higher (P<0.05) value for flesh quality indices such as springiness, adhesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. Lowest hardness value was found in T4H1 group. Significantly higher (P<0.05) EPA and DHA deposition in fish muscle was observed in T4H1 group. Protease activity was higher in T4H1 group followed by T2H0 group and lowest in T1H0 group. Amylase activity was lower in T2H0 and T4H1 groups. Overall results revealed that P/E ratio of 133 mg/kcal with additional supplementation of 1% HUFA in the diet enhances growth and improves flesh quality of P. hypophthalmus fingerlings. The IJA appears exclusively as a peer-reviewed on-line open-access journal at To read papers free of charge, please register online at registration form. Sale of IJA papers is strictly forbidden. Sale of IJA papers is strictly forbidden.
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