The Malawi integrated in-service teacher education programme: an experiment with mixed-mode training
ABSTRACT Malawi adopted free primary education in 1994 following the democratic election of a new government. This resulted in a massive increase in the demand for primary teachers. Pre-career, full-time teacher education was replaced by the Malawi integrated in-service teacher education programme (MIITEP). This was a mixed-mode system where periods of college-based training alternated with distance and local level support for training with a school base. The programme was introduced in 1997 and has successfully trained over 18,000 teachers. This paper describes the programme, and presents evidence on different elements of its implementation. It draws attention to its strengths and weaknesses and some of the conditions which need to be met to improve its quality.
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ABSTRACT: Despite significant global efforts to mitigate HIV and AIDS, the epidemic continues to be a serious problem to the human race. It has claimed many productive individuals, including teachers, administrators, and parents, and has left millions of trau- matized and orphaned children. Unfortunately, few teachers are prepared to take on the extra tasks of teaching and providing support that the disease creates within school settings. Teacher training institutions and governments are challenged to provide teachers with the knowledge and skills they need to take on these new and changing roles. This article explores the role of current pre-service and in-service teacher training (PITT) programmes and offers evidence that teachers need more and better training to integrate HIV education into the mainstream curriculum in Africa. We argue that the success of HIV interventions in the sector depends on the quality and relevance of the PITT programmes being offered.Prospects 01/2009; 39(4).
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ABSTRACT: Primary education is widely perceived to have a key role in reducing poverty and is positively associated with development-related outcomes such as improving productivity. For girls in particular, it is highly correlated with improvements in health and reductions in fertility, infant mortality and morbidity rates. There is general acknowledgement that it is central to breaking the intergenerational transmission of poverty. However, this review argues that the processes by which education influences poverty are insufficiently understood, particularly with respect to intergenerational poverty transmission. It finds that the discourses of poverty theorists and educationists currently run on parallel tracks; and that neither discourse benefits as fully as it should from the conceptual advances of the other. Chronic poverty theorists have developed nuanced definitions of multi-dimensional poverty in relation to both its duration as well as its dynamics. Education is seen as both a cause, and a factor contributing to the transmission of poverty, but little attempt is made in this literature to unpack the ‘black box’ of education. Conversely, the term ‘chronic poverty’ hardly appears in the education literature, which typically focuses more sharply on other indicators of disadvantage - such as caste, class, race – that education needs to challenge if it is not to reproduce unequitable social power relations. Its recognition that educational deprivation has multiple causes, including poverty, contests an oversimplified view of the capacity of formal education to tackle various forms of social disadvantage. The use of education to address chronic poverty specifically does not emerge from this review of the literature as a focus of education policy. Case studies of donor agency policy, non-government agencies and national governments, show that they draw on both economic arguments and rights-based approaches to development to justify the focus on primary education reflected in the international commitments to the Millennium Development Goals on poverty, education and gender. However, the paper also identifies a series of methodological tensions and challenges to demonstrate that the evidence base in relation to exactly how education interrupts intergenerational transmission of poverty is weaker than its confident reiteration by agencies such as these would suggest. It argues for a methodologically innovative future research agenda that brings poverty and education research together to provide a nuanced and detailed understanding of how the two are linked, and to improve policy targeting. Six case studies of policy innovations that use educational measures to address chronic poverty are included in the Appendixes.12/2008;
Article: Distance education in Malawi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Conclusion Any discussion of technology as a “tool-only” definition is incomplete. Instructional technology also refers to a systematic means of solving problems (Reiser, 1987). In the case of Malawi and so many other low-income societies where tools are difficult to purchase and maintain, one resource that is not in short supply is the number of able and willing people who could themselves provide solutions to the country's many challenges. The important role of the instructional designer should not be ignored. Mzuzu University has the benefit of having five trained instructional technologists among its faculty. Increasing the number of designers with experience in distance teaching and learning would benefit Malawi. The insight provided by people who have taken instructional design, educational psychology, and related courses, would undoubtedly open minds to new possibilities. Not only could they guide instructional development for Web-based learning, they could design and offer training on new technologies as they become available. Although consultants from outside Malawi can offer excellent advice based on their education and experience, such input is necessarily limited by the lack of a true understanding of contextual issues. The advantage indigenous designers have, of course, is first-hand knowledge of their own context, which plays a very important role in shaping instructional decisions (Arias & Clark, 2004; Perkins, 2003; Tessmer & Richey, 1997). Indigenous instructional designers should be called on first to offer guidance as leaders in ministries and at international funding agencies seeking reasonable solutions to the challenges to access and growth that lie before them.Educational Technology Research and Development 01/2005; 53(4):101-108. · 1.09 Impact Factor