Physicochemical and redox characteristics of particulate matter (PM) emitted from gasoline and diesel passenger cars
ABSTRACT Particulate matter (PM) originating from mobile sources has been linked to a myriad of adverse health outcomes, ranging from cancer to cardiopulmonary disease, and an array of environmental problems, including global warming and acid rain. Till date, however, it is not clear which physical characteristics or chemical constituents of PM are significant contributors to the magnitude of the health risk. This study sought to determine the relationship between physical and chemical characteristics of PM while quantitatively measuring samples for redox activity of diesel and gasoline particulate emissions from passenger vehicles typically in use in Europe. The main objective was to relate PM chemistry to the redox activity in relation to vehicle type and driving cycle. Our results showed a high degree of correlation between several PM species, including elemental and organic carbon, low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace metals such as lithium, beryllium, nickel and zinc, and the redox activity of PM, as measured by a quantitative chemical assay, the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. The reduction in PM mass or number emission factors resulting from the various engine configurations, fuel types and/or after-treatment technologies, however, was non-linearly related to the decrease in overall PM redox activity. While the PM mass emission rate from the diesel particle filter (DPF)-equipped vehicle was on average approximately 25 times lower than that of the conventional diesel, the redox potential was only eight times lower, which makes the per mass PM redox potential of the DPF vehicle about three times higher. Thus, a strategy aimed at protecting public health and welfare by reducing total vehicle mass and number emissions may not fully achieve the desired goal of preventing the health consequences of PM exposure. Further, study of the chemical composition and interactions between various chemical species may yield greater insights into the toxicity of the PM content of vehicle exhaust.
Article: Ultrafine particles from diesel vehicle emissions at different driving cycles induce differential vascular pro-inflammatory responses: implication of chemical components and NF-kappaB signaling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence supports the association between exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular diseases. Chronic exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; Dp <100 nm) is reported to promote atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice. Atherogenesis-prone factors induce endothelial dysfunction that contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that UFP induced oxidative stress via c-Jun N-terminal Kinases (JNK) activation in endothelial cells. In this study, we investigated pro-inflammatory responses of human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) exposed to UFP emitted from a diesel truck under an idling mode (UFP1) and an urban dynamometer driving schedule (UFP2), respectively. We hypothesize that UFP1 and UFP2 with distinct chemical compositions induce differential pro-inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. UFP2 contained a higher level of redox active organic compounds and metals on a per PM mass basis than UFP1. While both UFP1 and UFP2 induced superoxide production and up-regulated stress response genes such as heme oxygenease-1 (HO-1), OKL38, and tissue factor (TF), only UFP2 induced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as IL-8 (2.8 +/- 0.3-fold), MCP-1 (3.9 +/- 0.4-fold), and VCAM (6.5 +/- 1.1-fold) (n = 3, P < 0.05). UFP2-exposed HAEC also bound to a higher number of monocytes than UFP1-exposed HAEC (Control = 70 +/- 7.5, UFP1 = 106.7 +/- 12.5, UFP2 = 137.0 +/- 8.0, n = 3, P < 0.05). Adenovirus NF-kappaB Luciferase reporter assays revealed that UFP2, but not UFP1, significantly induced NF-kappaB activities. NF-kappaB inhibitor, CAY10512, significantly abrogated UFP2-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression and monocyte binding. While UFP1 induced higher level of oxidative stress and stress response gene expression, only UFP2, with higher levels of redox active organic compounds and metals, induced pro-inflammatory responses via NF-kappaB signaling. Thus, UFP with distinct chemical compositions caused differential response patterns in endothelial cells.Particle and Fibre Toxicology 03/2010; 7:6. · 7.25 Impact Factor
Article: The potential of a partial-flow constant dilution ratio sampling system as a candidate for vehicle exhaust aerosol measurements.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This paper presents the measurement of airborne particle properties with use of a dedicated sampling protocol and a measurement setup directly installed in the exhaust line of vehicles and engines. The sampling system dilutes a small part of the exhaust directly at the tailpipe without the need of exhaust gas transfer lines that may lead to sampling artifacts. Dilution takes place in two steps with a primary dilution ratio universally set at a value of 12.5:1 for all vehicles and engines tested, and subsequent dilution steps reducing particle concentration within the measuring range of the instruments used. Dilution air temperature and residence time were set at 32 degrees C and 2.5 sec respectively, to allow repeatable measurement of nucleation-mode particles. The paper summarizes the specifications of the system, evaluates its performance in comparison to real-world dilution (chasing experiments), and presents the repeatability and reproducibility of measurements performed in different laboratories. In general, after taking precautions for the setup and condition of instruments, both measurement quality indices reached levels similar to the measurement of particulate matter (PM) mass. Application of the system, using the same protocol, to measure many light-duty vehicles and engines is finally demonstrated, providing useful conclusions for the emission performance of different sized engines. The study concludes that the use of partial-flow sampling systems may offer advantages for the measurement of particle emissions from low-emission engines compared with constant volume sampling facilities, including lower cost of purchase and operation, versatility, lack of artifacts, and possibilities for standardization in different environments.Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) 10/2010; 60(10):1223-36. · 1.52 Impact Factor
Article: In vitro toxicity of particulate matter (PM) collected at different sites in the Netherlands is associated with PM composition, size fraction and oxidative potential--the RAPTES project.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is associated with respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To what extent such effects are different for PM obtained from different sources or locations is still unclear. This study investigated the in vitro toxicity of ambient PM collected at different sites in the Netherlands in relation to PM composition and oxidative potential. PM was sampled at eight sites: three traffic sites, an underground train station, as well as a harbor, farm, steelworks, and urban background location. Coarse (2.5-10 μm), fine (< 2.5 μm) and quasi ultrafine PM (qUF; < 0.18 μm) were sampled at each site. Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) were exposed to increasing concentrations of PM from these sites (6.25-12.5-25-50-100 μg/ml; corresponding to 3.68-58.8 μg/cm2). Following overnight incubation, MTT-reduction activity (a measure of metabolic activity) and the release of pro-inflammatory markers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, TNF-α; Interleukin-6, IL-6; Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-2, MIP-2) were measured. The oxidative potential and the endotoxin content of each PM sample were determined in a DTT- and LAL-assay respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to assess the relationship between the cellular responses and PM characteristics: concentration, site, size fraction, oxidative potential and endotoxin content. Most PM samples induced a concentration-dependent decrease in MTT-reduction activity and an increase in pro-inflammatory markers with the exception of the urban background and stop & go traffic samples. Fine and qUF samples of traffic locations, characterized by a high concentration of elemental and organic carbon, induced the highest pro-inflammatory activity. The pro-inflammatory response to coarse samples was associated with the endotoxin level, which was found to increase dramatically during a three-day sample concentration procedure in the laboratory. The underground samples, characterized by a high content of transition metals, showed the largest decrease in MTT-reduction activity. PM size fraction was not related to MTT-reduction activity, whereas there was a statistically significant difference in pro-inflammatory activity between Fine and qUF PM. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant negative association between PM oxidative potential and MTT-reduction activity. The response of RAW264.7 cells to ambient PM was markedly different using samples collected at various sites in the Netherlands that differed in their local PM emission sources. Our results are in support of other investigations showing that the chemical composition as well as oxidative potential are determinants of PM induced toxicity in vitro.Particle and Fibre Toxicology 09/2011; 8:26. · 7.25 Impact Factor