Shiveluch volcano: seismicity, deep structure and forecasting eruptions (kamchatka)
ABSTRACT The deep structure, Wadati-Benioff zone (focal zone) geometry and the magma feeding system of Shiveluch volcano are investigated based on 1962–1994 detailed seismic surveillance.A focal zone beneath Shiveluch is dipping at an angle of 70° at depths of 100–200 km. Based on the revealed interrelations between seismicity at depths of 105–120 km and an extrusive phase of its eruptions in 1980 through 1994, it is inferred that primary magmas, periodically feeding the crustal chamber, are melted at depths of at least 100 km. An upsurge of extrusive-explosive activity at the volcano is preceded and accompanied by the increasing number and energy of both volcanic earthquakes beneath the dome and tectonic or volcano-tectonic earthquakes in the zones of NW-striking crustal faults near the volcano.The eruption of April 1993 has been the most powerful since 1964. It was successfully predicted based on interactive use of all seismic data. At the same time the influence of seismicity at depths of 105–120 km under the volcano on the style (and consequently on prediction) of its activity is decisive.
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ABSTRACT: We give an overview of the 2005–2011 eruptions of Shiveluch Volcano together with the seismicity and deformations of the lava dome during dome growth. It is shown that the generation of the intracrater intrusive dome proceeded at a variable rate. The maximum discharge of erupted lava reached 0.6 million cubic meters per day. Increased explosive activity preceded periods of intensive growth of the lava dome. We determined the volumes and depths of the magma chambers that supplied magma for large eruptions of the volcano on November 12, 1964, February 28, 2005, and October 27, 2010. We calculated the effective viscosity of the 2007 and 2011 lava flows.Journal of Volcanology and Seismology 03/2013; 7(2). · 0.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of the study was to explore the cognitive profile of creativity in design by applying a new approach to the assessment of creativity based on the theory of meaning (Kreitler & Kreitler). The assessment of meaning enables to identify cognitive processes that characterize an individual as well as those necessary for good performance of some cognitive act, such as creativity. It was hypothesized that creativity in design will include partly cognitive components identified in previous studies of creativity and partly new ones. The participants were 52 students in a school of design, who were administered a designing task and the Meaning Test, assessing a broad range of cognitive processes. The design products were assessed for creativity by three experienced architects. The cognitive processes, differentiating significantly between the students who produced highly creative designs and those who produced less creative ones, were interpreted as constituting the cognitive profile of creativity in design. The obtained profile supported the hypothesis and provided information about the cognitive processes of creativity in design, which may also be used for promoting creativity in design students.Thinking Skills and Creativity 12/2011; 6(3):159–168. · 1.46 Impact Factor
- Journal of Petrology - J PETROL. 01/2001; 42(8):1567-1593.