The origin and characteristics of a pig kidney cell strain, LLC-PK.
ABSTRACT A stable epithelial-like pig kidney cell strain has been established. This strain has been carried through more than 300 serial passages, has remained free of microbial and viral contaminants, and has retained a near diploid number of chromosomes. Attempts to produce tumors with these cells in immunosuppressed laboratory animals have been uniformly negative. The cells have grown rapidly in monolayer cultures with a split ratio of 1 to 15 at weekly intervals, but have failed to proliferate in suspension cultures. A subline adapted to growth on serum-free medium 199 has been carried through 145 passages on this medium. Several unusual morphologic features have been observed in these cultures including three-dimensional "domelike" structures. These cells have been found susceptible to some viruses and have been especially useful for viruses of domestic animals. LLC-PK1 cells have produced significant levels of plasminogen activator.
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ABSTRACT: Ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis are prominent metabolic features of the renal proximal convoluted tubule that contribute to maintenance of systemic acid-base homeostasis. Molecular analysis of the mechanisms that mediate the coordinate regulation of the two pathways required development of a cell line that recapitulates these features in vitro. By adapting porcine renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells to essentially glucose-free medium, a gluconeogenic subline, termed LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells, was isolated. LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells grow in the absence of hexoses and pentoses and exhibit enhanced oxidative metabolism and increased levels of phosphate-dependent glutaminase. The cells also express significant levels of the key gluconeogenic enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Thus, the altered phenotype of LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells is pleiotropic. Most importantly, when transferred to medium that mimics a pronounced metabolic acidosis (9 mM HCO3-, pH 6.9), the LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells exhibit a gradual increase in NH4(+) ion production, accompanied by increases in glutaminase and cytosolic PEPCK mRNA levels and proteins. Therefore, the LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells retained in culture many of the metabolic pathways and pH-responsive adaptations characteristic of renal proximal tubules. The molecular mechanisms that mediate enhanced expression of the glutaminase and PEPCK in LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells have been extensively reviewed. The present review describes novel properties of this unique cell line and summarizes the molecular mechanisms that have been defined more recently using LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells to model the renal proximal tubule. It also identifies future studies that could be performed using these cells.AJP Renal Physiology 07/2014; 307:F1 - F11. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background In renal Fanconi's syndrome, dysfunction in proximal tubular cells leads to renal losses of water, electrolytes, and low-molecular-weight nutrients. For most types of isolated Fanconi's syndrome, the genetic cause and underlying defect remain unknown. Methods We clinically and genetically characterized members of a five-generation black family with isolated autosomal dominant Fanconi's syndrome. We performed genomewide linkage analysis, gene sequencing, biochemical and cell-biologic investigations of renal proximal tubular cells, studies in knockout mice, and functional evaluations of mitochondria. Urine was studied with the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy. Results We linked the phenotype of this family's Fanconi's syndrome to a single locus on chromosome 3q27, where a heterozygous missense mutation in EHHADH segregated with the disease. The p.E3K mutation created a new mitochondrial targeting motif in the N-terminal portion of EHHADH, an enzyme that is involved in peroxisomal oxidation of fatty acids and is expressed in the proximal tubule. Immunocytofluorescence studies showed mistargeting of the mutant EHHADH to mitochondria. Studies of proximal tubular cells revealed impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and defects in the transport of fluids and a glucose analogue across the epithelium. (1)H-NMR spectroscopy showed elevated levels of mitochondrial metabolites in urine from affected family members. Ehhadh knockout mice showed no abnormalities in renal tubular cells, a finding that indicates a dominant negative nature of the mutation rather than haploinsufficiency. Conclusions Mistargeting of peroxisomal EHHADH disrupts mitochondrial metabolism and leads to renal Fanconi's syndrome; this indicates a central role of mitochondria in proximal tubular function. The dominant negative effect of the mistargeted protein adds to the spectrum of monogenic mechanisms of Fanconi's syndrome. (Funded by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme and others.).New England Journal of Medicine 01/2014; 370(2):129-138. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are major posttranscriptional regulators of a wide variety of biological processes. However, redundancy among most miRNAs has made it difficult to identify their in vivo functions. We previously demonstrated that global inhibition of miRNA biogenesis in Xenopus resulted in a dramatically smaller pronephric kidney. This suggested that microRNAs play a pivotal role in organ size control. Here we now provide a detailed mechanistic explanation for this phenotype. We identified that the activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (Igf) 2 is an important regulator in kidney growth, which in turn is modulated by microRNAs. Molecular analyses demonstrate that microRNAs set a threshold for mTORC1 signaling by down-regulating one of its core negative regulators, tuberous sclerosis 1 (Tsc1). Most importantly, this rheostat can be reprogrammed experimentally. Whereas knockdown of miRNAs causes growth arrest, concomitant knockdown of Tsc1 restores mTORC1 activity and proximal tubular size. Together, these data establish a previously unidentified in vivo paradigm for the importance of posttranscriptional regulation in organ size control.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor