The origin and characteristics of a pig kidney cell strain, LLC-PK.
ABSTRACT A stable epithelial-like pig kidney cell strain has been established. This strain has been carried through more than 300 serial passages, has remained free of microbial and viral contaminants, and has retained a near diploid number of chromosomes. Attempts to produce tumors with these cells in immunosuppressed laboratory animals have been uniformly negative. The cells have grown rapidly in monolayer cultures with a split ratio of 1 to 15 at weekly intervals, but have failed to proliferate in suspension cultures. A subline adapted to growth on serum-free medium 199 has been carried through 145 passages on this medium. Several unusual morphologic features have been observed in these cultures including three-dimensional "domelike" structures. These cells have been found susceptible to some viruses and have been especially useful for viruses of domestic animals. LLC-PK1 cells have produced significant levels of plasminogen activator.
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ABSTRACT: Phenformin, resveratrol and AICAR stimulate the energy sensor 5'-AMP activated kinase (AMPK) and inhibit the first step of ribosome biogenesis, de novo RNA synthesis in nucleoli. Nucleolar activities are relevant to human health, because ribosome production is crucial to the development of diabetic complications. Although the function of nucleoli relies on their organization, the impact of AMPK activators on nucleolar structures is not known. Here, we addressed this question by examining four nucleolar proteins that are essential for ribosome biogenesis. Kidney cells were selected as model system, because diabetic nephropathy is one of the complications associated with diabetes mellitus. To determine the impact of pharmacological agents on nucleoli, we focused on the subcellular and subnuclear distribution of B23/nucleophosmin, fibrillarin, nucleolin and RPA194. This was achieved by quantitative confocal microscopy at the single-cell level in combination with cell fractionation and quantitative Western blotting. AMPK activators induced the re-organization of nucleoli, which was accompanied by changes in cell proliferation. Among the compounds tested, phenformin and resveratrol had the most pronounced impact on nucleolar organization. For B23, fibrillarin, nucleolin and RPA194, both agents (i) altered the nucleocytoplasmic distribution and nucleolar association and (ii) reduced significantly the retention in the nucleus. (iii) Phenformin and resveratrol also increased significantly the total concentration of B23 and nucleolin. AMPK activators have unique effects on the subcellular localization, nuclear retention and abundance of nucleolar proteins. We propose that the combination of these events inhibits de novo ribosomal RNA synthesis and modulates cell proliferation. Our studies identified nucleolin as a target that is especially sensitive to pharmacological AMPK activators. Because of its response to pharmacological agents, nucleolin represents a potential biomarker for the development of drugs that diminish diabetic renal hypertrophy.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e88087. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis are prominent metabolic features of the renal proximal convoluted tubule that contribute to maintenance of systemic acid-base homeostasis. Molecular analysis of the mechanisms that mediate the coordinate regulation of the two pathways required development of a cell line that recapitulates these features in vitro. By adapting porcine renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells to essentially glucose-free medium, a gluconeogenic subline, termed LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells, was isolated. LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells grow in the absence of hexoses and pentoses and exhibit enhanced oxidative metabolism and increased levels of phosphate-dependent glutaminase. The cells also express significant levels of the key gluconeogenic enzymes, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Thus, the altered phenotype of LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells is pleiotropic. Most importantly, when transferred to medium that mimics a pronounced metabolic acidosis (9 mM HCO3-, pH 6.9), the LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells exhibit a gradual increase in NH4(+) ion production, accompanied by increases in glutaminase and cytosolic PEPCK mRNA levels and proteins. Therefore, the LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells retained in culture many of the metabolic pathways and pH-responsive adaptations characteristic of renal proximal tubules. The molecular mechanisms that mediate enhanced expression of the glutaminase and PEPCK in LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells have been extensively reviewed. The present review describes novel properties of this unique cell line and summarizes the molecular mechanisms that have been defined more recently using LLC-PK1-FBPase(+) cells to model the renal proximal tubule. It also identifies future studies that could be performed using these cells.AJP Renal Physiology 07/2014; 307:F1 - F11. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are major posttranscriptional regulators of a wide variety of biological processes. However, redundancy among most miRNAs has made it difficult to identify their in vivo functions. We previously demonstrated that global inhibition of miRNA biogenesis in Xenopus resulted in a dramatically smaller pronephric kidney. This suggested that microRNAs play a pivotal role in organ size control. Here we now provide a detailed mechanistic explanation for this phenotype. We identified that the activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) by Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (Igf) 2 is an important regulator in kidney growth, which in turn is modulated by microRNAs. Molecular analyses demonstrate that microRNAs set a threshold for mTORC1 signaling by down-regulating one of its core negative regulators, tuberous sclerosis 1 (Tsc1). Most importantly, this rheostat can be reprogrammed experimentally. Whereas knockdown of miRNAs causes growth arrest, concomitant knockdown of Tsc1 restores mTORC1 activity and proximal tubular size. Together, these data establish a previously unidentified in vivo paradigm for the importance of posttranscriptional regulation in organ size control.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor