Determination of phthalates in wine by headspace solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry: Fibre comparison and selection
ABSTRACT This paper describes the development of a headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (HS–SPME–GC–MS) method for determining phthalates in wine. The HS-SPME conditions were thoroughly studied: first, the performance of six fibres at three temperature values and two sample volumes was surveyed by means of a 6 × 3 × 2 multi-factor categorical experimental design. From this study, three fibres – carbowax-divinylbenzene (CW-DVB), polyacrylate (PA) and polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB) – were selected. Then, temperature, sample volume and sodium chloride concentration were optimised using a central composite design and the overall desirability function for each fibre. The optimal values were 70 °C, a NaCl concentration of 2.6, 3.6 and 5.5 M for PA, CW-DVB and PDMS-DVB fibres, respectively, and sample volumes of 4.0, 3.5 and 3.0 mL. Next, the performance characteristics of the three fibres were obtained and compared. PDMS-DVB fibre showed the best repeatability values followed by CW-DVB. PA fibre was not suitable for diethylhexylphthalate extraction and showed poor repeatability for the heavier phthalates, and was therefore discarded. Finally, the performance of CW-DVB and PDMS-DVB fibres was checked for red, white and rosé wines.