Impaired Adult Neurogenesis in Mice Lacking the Transcription Factor E2F1
ABSTRACT During nervous system development the fate of neural stem cells—whether to undergo proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis—is controlled by various signals, such as growth factors. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor E2F1, which is targeted by several signaling cascades that are activated by growth factors, is involved in neurogenesis in the adult brain. When analyzing the brains of E2F1-deficient mice, we found significantly decreased stem cell and progenitor division in the proliferative zones of the lateral ventricle wall and the hippocampus. As a consequence, the production of newborn neurons in the adult olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus was decreased. Neuronal cell counts of the adult cerebellum revealed a mild but significant cerebellar atrophy, whereas neocortical neurons were unaffected, suggesting that E2F1 deficiency produces a predominantly postnatal phenotype. The results indicate an involvement of E2F1 in controlling proliferation and neuronal cell numbers in the postnatal and adult brain.
Article: A systemic transcriptome analysis reveals the regulation of neural stem cell maintenance by an E2F1-miRNA feedback loop.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stem cell fate decisions are controlled by a molecular network in which transcription factors and miRNAs are of key importance. To systemically investigate their impact on neural stem cell (NSC) maintenance and neuronal commitment, we performed a high-throughput mRNA and miRNA profiling and isolated functional interaction networks of involved mechanisms. Thereby, we identified an E2F1-miRNA feedback loop as important regulator of NSC fate decisions. Although E2F1 supports NSC proliferation and represses transcription of miRNAs from the miR-17∼92 and miR-106a∼363 clusters, these miRNAs are transiently up-regulated at early stages of neuronal differentiation. In these early committed cells, increased miRNAs expression levels directly repress E2F1 mRNA levels and inhibit cellular proliferation. In mice, we demonstrated that these miRNAs are expressed in the neurogenic areas and that E2F1 inhibition represses NSC proliferation. The here presented data suggest a novel interaction mechanism between E2F1 and miR-17∼92 / miR-106a∼363 miRNAs in controlling NSC proliferation and neuronal differentiation.Nucleic Acids Research 02/2013; · 8.03 Impact Factor
Article: Uncovering molecular biomarkers that correlate cognitive decline with the changes of hippocampus' gene expression profiles in Alzheimer's disease.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a neurodegenerative progression that alters cognition. On a phenotypical level, cognition is evaluated by means of the MiniMental State Examination (MMSE) and the post-mortem examination of Neurofibrillary Tangle count (NFT) helps to confirm an AD diagnostic. The MMSE evaluates different aspects of cognition including orientation, short-term memory (retention and recall), attention and language. As there is a normal cognitive decline with aging, and death is the final state on which NFT can be counted, the identification of brain gene expression biomarkers from these phenotypical measures has been elusive. We have reanalysed a microarray dataset contributed in 2004 by Blalock et al. of 31 samples corresponding to hippocampus gene expression from 22 AD subjects of varying degree of severity and 9 controls. Instead of only relying on correlations of gene expression with the associated MMSE and NFT measures, and by using modern bioinformatics methods based on information theory and combinatorial optimization, we uncovered a 1,372-probe gene expression signature that presents a high-consensus with established markers of progression in AD. The signature reveals alterations in calcium, insulin, phosphatidylinositol and wnt-signalling. Among the most correlated gene probes with AD severity we found those linked to synaptic function, neurofilament bundle assembly and neuronal plasticity. A transcription factors analysis of 1,372-probe signature reveals significant associations with the EGR/KROX family of proteins, MAZ, and E2F1. The gene homologous of EGR1, zif268, Egr-1 or Zenk, together with other members of the EGR family, are consolidating a key role in the neuronal plasticity in the brain. These results indicate a degree of commonality between putative genes involved in AD and prion-induced neurodegenerative processes that warrants further investigation.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(4):e10153. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The adult brain most probably reaches its highest degree of plasticity with the lifelong generation and integration of new neurons in the hippocampus and olfactory system. Neural precursor cells (NPCs) residing both in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles continuously generate neurons that populate the dentate gyrus and the olfactory bulb, respectively. The regulation of NPC proliferation in the adult brain has been widely investigated in the past few years. Yet, the intrinsic cell cycle machinery underlying NPC proliferation remains largely unexplored. In this review, we discuss the cell cycle components that are involved in the regulation of NPC proliferation in both neurogenic areas of the adult brain.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 11/2011; 69(9):1493-503. · 6.57 Impact Factor