Solvation, interaction and dynamics of xenon atoms in HPLC column materials studied by variable-temperature dependent 129Xe, 1H–129Xe cross-polarization, and two-dimensional exchange NMR experiments
ABSTRACT Xenon NMR is a useful method for probing structure and dynamics of micro-porous materials due to the sensitivity of xenon’s chemical shifts to its local interactions, and the diffusion property of xenon atoms. Here, we report a study of solvation, interaction and diffusion of xenon atoms inside the HPLC column materials, Zorbax SB-C18 and XDB-C18 which were made of siloxane surface coatings of porous silica, by variable-temperature dependent (VT) 129Xe, 1H–129Xe cross-polarization (CP), and two-dimensional exchange (2D EXSY) NMR experiments. The VT NMR experiment showed the solvation and dynamics of xenon atoms in the column materials. The CP experiment at low temperature provided evidence for probing the direct interaction of xenon atoms with the hydrocarbon chains of the stationary phase, and helped for assigning the 129Xe peaks in the VT NMR spectra. The 2D EXSY NMR experimental result showed the diffusion of xenon atoms within the accessible spaces in the column materials. Combined with our previous study, a full picture of xenon’s behavior inside the column materials has been described. This study provides a basic understanding of xenon NMR of the column materials, which enables us to conduct further investigation of retention mechanisms of column materials in terms of molecular interaction and diffusion by xenon NMR method.
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ABSTRACT: The fruiting bodies, spores, and lipid from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum have been widely used for medicinal purpose in China. Ergosterol content may be a suitable marker for evaluating the quality of ganoderma spore and ganoderma spore lipid (GSL) products. A gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of free and esterified ergosterols in G. lucidum. The contents of free and esterified ergosterols in the different parts (the stipe, pileus, tubes, and spores) of G. lucidum and GSL were determined. The results showed that total ergosterol levels in the stipe, pileus, tubes, and spores of G. lucidum were between 0.8 and 1.6 mg/g. The relative abundances of free to esterified ergosterol were different in the different parts of G. lucidum. The spores and the tubes, the hymenophore tissue that contains the spore-producing cells, have a considerably higher percentage of ergosteryl esters (41.9 and 39.7% of total ergosterol) in comparison with the pileus and stipe tissues (3.6 and 6.2%).Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 12/2007; 77(1):159-65. DOI:10.1007/s00253-007-1147-x · 3.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: VT (129)Xe NMR was applied to probe the interactions of solvents having different polarity indices with the stationary phase of a RP-C18 HPLC column material. It was observed that the highly polar ethylene glycol molecules do not mix with the alkyl chains of the RP-C18 stationary phase and the solvent is unable to enter the pores and the spaces between the particles. Three phases in this sample are defined as stationary/xenon phase, xenon gas phase (in the pores and the spaces between the particles) and ethylene glycol/xenon phase. In contrast to ethylene glycol, the nonpolar solvent cyclohexane was observed to be well mixed with the RP-C18 stationary phase. The capillary rise effect allows the solvent to enter the pores and the spaces between the particles. Two phases in this sample are defined as stationary/cyclohexane/xenon phase and cyclohexane/xenon phases. The properties of ethyl acetate are between those of ethylene glycol and cyclohexane. The (129)Xe NMR results show that the rational reversed phases should be conditioned from highly solvating to more polar solvents to remove the trapped air. The (129)Xe NMR results also show that pure stationary phase exists only when a highly polar solvent is used in reversed-phase chromatography. For a solvent with lower polarity, a stationary/solvent phase actually forms. This, together with the mobile phase, determines the selective factor for separating mixtures.Journal of Chromatography A 08/2006; 1121(1):23-31. DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2006.03.117 · 4.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract: The pore environments of a series of isoreticular metal-organic frameworks (IRMOF) have been studied using hyperpolarized (HP) 129Xe nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Xenon gas behaved as an efficient probe molecule for interrogating the variability of adsorption sites in functionalized IRMOF materials through variations in the NMR chemical shift of the adsorbed xenon. The xenon adsorption enthalpies extracted from variable-temperature HP 129Xe NMR were found to be lower than published values for the physisorption of xenon. The low heats of adsorption were corroborated by xenon adsorption measurements that revealed two atoms per pore under one atmosphere of pressure at 19 C. Average pore diameters estimated from the empirical chemical shift and pore size correlations based on a geometrical model were compared with X-ray crystallography data. The exchange processes of xenon in IRMOFs also were explored using 2D exchange spectroscopy (EXSY) 129Xe NMR. It was found the exchange of xenon from adsorption sites within the IRMOF to the free gas space is much slower than that between the adsorption sites within the lattice. Cross-polarization experiments showed that the preferred adsorption sites were spatially removed from the phenylene rings of the network. This agrees with previous spectroscopic, structural, and computational studies of gas adsorption (H2, N2, Ar) in IRMOFs that indicate the preferred binding sites reside near the carboxylate groups of the inorganic clusters.The Journal of Physical Chemistry C 04/2007; 111(16):6060-6067. DOI:10.1021/jp0668246 · 4.84 Impact Factor