Albumin and immunoglobulin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier function in patients with dementia of alzheimer type and multi-infarct dementia
ABSTRACT Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 20 patients with Alzheimer's dementia or senile dementia of Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT), 23 with multi-infarct dementia (MID) and 16 controls were assayed for their content of immunoglobulins (Ig) and albumin (Alb). The concentrations of IgG and Alb were used to analyze the blood-CSF barrier function in the respective group.MID patients had significantly (P < 0.001) elevated plasma IgG levels compared to controls and AD/SDAT patients. CSF concentration of Alb was significantly higher in MID (P < 0.01) and AD/SDAT (P < 0.05) patients compared to the controls. Concentration of CSF IgG was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in AD/SDAT patients compared to the MID patients; no significant differences were found when CSF concentrations of IgG of demented patients were compared to controls. These findings may indicate a blood-CSF barrier dysfunction especially in cases with MID with significantly (P < 0.001) elevated values of transudation. Also these findings indicate a non-specific and/or specific binding of IgG in CNS tissue and/or vessel walls in both forms of dementia on the basis of low IgG ratios compared to proportionally higher Alb ratios.There were no signs of local synthesis of IgG in CNS in either group of demented patients.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting millions of people worldwide. Apart from age, the major risk factor identified so far for the sporadic form of AD is possession of the epsilon4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE), which is also a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Other apolipoproteins known to play an important role in CAD such as apolipoprotein B are now gaining attention for their role in AD as well. AD and CAD share other risk factors, such as altered cholesterol levels, particularly high levels of low density lipoproteins together with low levels of high density lipoproteins. Statins--drugs that have been used to lower cholesterol levels in CAD, have been shown to protect against AD, although the protective mechanism(s) involved are still under debate. Enzymatic production of the beta amyloid peptide, the peptide thought to play a major role in AD pathogenesis, is affected by membrane cholesterol levels. In addition, polymorphisms in several proteins and enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipoprotein transport and metabolism have been linked to risk of AD. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that changes in cholesterol metabolism are intimately involved in AD pathogenic processes. This paper reviews cholesterol metabolism and transport, as well as those aspects of cholesterol metabolism that have been linked with AD.Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2009; 111(6):1275-308. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06408.x · 4.24 Impact Factor