Effect of Exogenous Salicylic Acid under Changing Environment: A Review

Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P., India
Environmental and Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 3.36). 03/2010; 68(1):14-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.08.005


Salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous plant growth regulator has been found to generate a wide range of metabolic and physiological responses in plants thereby affecting their growth and development. In the present review, we have focused on various intrinsic biosynthetic pathways, interplay of SA and MeSA, its long distance transport and signaling. The effect of exogenous application of SA on bio-productivity, growth, photosynthesis, plant water relations, various enzyme activities and its effect on the plants exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses has also been discussed.

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    • "Even one day after withdrawal of cadmium from the incubation medium the growth of these plants remained on the same low level (Table 1 and Fig. 1). By now, a lot of evidences have accumulated showing effectiveness of application of salicylic acid for amelioration of cadmium toxicity in different plant species (Metwally et al., 2003; Meng et al., 2009; Hayat et al., 2010; Cui et al., 2012; Maslennikova et al., 2013; Asgher et al., 2015). Data in Fig. 1 and Tables 1 and 2 demonstrate that treatment of plants with SA during 24 h resulted in evident growth-promoting effect on wheat seedlings, and although pretreatment with SA did not prevent negative effects of stress on wheat seedlings, it helped to maintain the growth rate of these plants, at least at the level of control plants. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the influence of pretreatment of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) with 50. μM salicylic acid (SA) on plant resistance to subsequent action of 1. mM cadmium acetate. SA pretreatment decreased the extent of detrimental effect of cadmium on wheat plants, as judged by the decline in the level of stress-induced accumulation of MDA and electrolyte leakage. Furthermore, SA-pretreatment contributed to maintenance of growth characteristics of wheat seedlings at the level close to the control under stress conditions and to acceleration of growth recovery during post-stress period. Detected defense effect of SA may be due to a decline in the amplitude of cadmium-induced accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and to reduced fall of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins (CK) in stressed plants. In the course of one day treatment, SA activated phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), the key enzyme of lignin biosynthesis, in roots of seedlings under normal growth conditions contributing to the strengthening of carrier functions of cell walls. This assumption is supported by the data showing significant decline in cadmium accumulation in SA-pretreated plants, especially in the shoots. Cd-treatment was shown to result in accumulation of dehydrins with molecular mass 22, 28, 55 and 69. kDa in wheat seedlings, although low molecular weight dehydrins (22 and 28. kDa) showed greater stress sensitivity. It is noteworthy that SA-pretreatment by itself led to 1.5-fold increase in the content of low molecular weight dehydrins. Nevertheless, SA-pretreated seedlings were characterized by significantly lower Cd-induced accumulation of all of the four dehydrins, apparently due to inhibition of cadmium flow into the plants. The obtained data suggest involvement of dehydrins in the range of defense reactions induced by SA-treatment contributing significantly to development of plant resistance to subsequent action of stress. The use of fluridone allowed us to demonstrate the key role of endogenous ABA in SA-induced changes in the level of dehydrins as well as in the protective effect of SA on wheat plants under cadmium stress resulting from development of defense responses in the course of SA-treatment.
    Environmental and Experimental Botany 08/2015; 122. DOI:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2015.08.002 · 3.36 Impact Factor
    • "This process requires excessive metabolic energy what may negatively affect the level of carbohydrates in plants as well as the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as vitamins, pigments or phenolic compounds. Salicylic acid (SA) is considered a phytohormone-like compound as it is involved in the regulation of plant growth, development and other physiological processes (Fariduddin et al., 2003; Hayat et al., 2010). In horticulture practice, tomato cultivation is widely conducted under cover using hydroponics with or without circulating system. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vegetables with increased content of iodine can become an alternative source of this element in the diet. Iodine is not a plant nutrient. Salicylic acid (SA) is involved in plant adaptation to stress conditions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of iodine and SA on yield and selected parameters of chemical composition of tomato fruits. A three-year study with tomato cultivation in hydroponic system was conducted with the introduction of iodine and SA into nutrient solution: (1) Control, (2) KI, (3) KIO3, (4) KI + SA, (5) KIO3 + SA. Both iodine and SA were applied in a dose of 1 mg dm−3, i.e. 7.88 μM I and 7.24 μM SA, respectively. Fruits of plants treated with KI contained significantly more iodine. SA contributed to a 157% and 37% increase in iodine accumulation in fruits – for KIO3 + SA and KI + SA, respectively. Treatment with KIO3 was the best for nutritional value of tomato fruits.
    Scientia Horticulturae 06/2015; 188:89-96. DOI:10.1016/j.scienta.2015.03.023 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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    • "Generally, within 12 h treatment, plants exhibit enhanced tolerance. Longer treatment could reduce this effect, and even harm plants (Hayat et al. 2010; Wang et al. 2011). It is known that SA can interact with CAT and APX to inhibit their activity (Chen et al. 1993; Sajitha Rajan and Murugan 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background and aims In plants, salicylic acid (SA) acting as one of the signaling molecules can regulate and respond to cadmium (Cd) stress. It is well known that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could alleviate toxicity of Cd stress but the crosstalk between SA and H2S in regulating Cd stress still remains unclear. Methods We studied on it through the physiological and biochemical method together with the microstructure synthesis. Results Our results indicated that the plants exhibited enhanced tolerance to Cd when pretreated with SA, which included weakening oxidative damage and intensifying photosynthesis as well as boosting L-cysteine desulfhydrase (LCD) activity and raising the content of endogenous H2S. In parallel, the plants pretreated with NaHS, a donor of H2S, showed a stronger ability to tolerate Cd stress, SA- pretreated plants presented normal growth and meanwhile the content of chlorophyll and the microstructure of roots were significantly different compared to those treated with Cd only. By contrast, with the same treatments, the positive function and effect of SA on the LCD-knockout mutants, lcd was not observed. Pharmacological experiments further testified these results. Conclusions All of the results suggest that H2S may be a downstream signal molecule in SA-induced Cd tolerance of Arabidopsis.
    Plant and Soil 04/2015; 393(1). DOI:10.1007/s11104-015-2475-8 · 2.95 Impact Factor
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