Increased extraction efficiency of acetonitrile/water mixtures for explosives determination in plant tissues
ABSTRACT The standard extraction technique for analysis of explosives in dried soils for explosives analysis uses an 18 hour cooled sonication extraction in acetonitrile (ACN). In order to eliminate possible thermal degradation of explosive analytes during the drying step, water was allowed to act as a modifier for the acetonitrile extraction solvent in extraction of un-dried plant tissues resulted. The modified extraction solvent resulted in more efficient extraction of explosives analytes from these matrices compared to extractions in 100% ACN. In order to understand this increased extraction efficiency, extractions and analyses were performed on plant tissues that had been exposed to contaminated irrigation water with varied extraction solvents. Significant increases in extractability of explosives from plant tissues were noted with increasing water ratios. These observations were investigated using gravimetric, high performance liquid chromatographic, and environmental scanning electron microscopic analysis. The increased efficiency of water modified acetonitrile extraction solvents is explained by a secondary extraction effect.
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ABSTRACT: The enormous growth of industrialization, and the use of numerous aromatic compounds in dyestuffs, explosives, pesticides and pharmaceuticals has resulted in serious environmental pollution and has attracted considerable attention continuously over the last two decades. Many aromatic hydrocarbons, nitroaromatic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, diauxins and their derivatives are highly toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic to natural microflora as well as to higher systems including humans. The increasing costs and limited efficiency of traditional physicochemical treatments of soil have spurred the development of new remediation technologies. Phytoremediation is emerging as an efficient treatment technology that uses plants to bioremediate pollutants from soil environments. Various modern tools and analytical devices have provided insight into the selection and optimization of remediation processes by various plant species. Sites heavily polluted with organic contaminants require hyperaccumulators, which could be developed by genetic engineering approaches. However, efficient hyperaccumulation by naturally occurring plants is also feasible and can be made practical by improving their nutritional and environmental requirements. Thus, phytoremediation of organics appears a very promising technology for the removal of contaminants from polluted soil. In this review, certain aspects of plant metabolism associated with phytoremediation of organic contaminants and their relevant phytoremediation efforts are discussed.Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 01/2004; 63(2):128-35. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Problems of long-term existence of the environmental contaminant 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and necessities for the use of trees ('dendroremediation') in sustainable phytoremediation strategies for TNT are described in the first part of this paper. Aims of the second part are estimation of [14C]-TNT uptake, localisation of TNT-derived radioactivity in mature tree tissues, and the determination of the degree of TNT-degradation during dendroremediation processes. Four-year-old trees of hybrid willow (Salix spec., clone EW-20) and of Norway spruce (Picea abies) were cultivated in sand or ammunition plant soil (AP-soil) in wick supplied growth vessels. Trees were exposed to a single pulse application with water solved [U-14C]-TNT reaching a calculated initial concentration of 5.2 mg TNT per kg dry soil. Two months after application overall radioactivity and extractability of 14C were determined in sand/soil, roots, stem-wood, stem-bark, branches, leaves, needles, and Picea May sprouts. Root extracts were analysed by radio TLC. 60 days after [14C]-TNT application, recovered 14C is accumulated in roots (70% for sand variants, 34% for AP-soil variant). 15-28% of 14C remained in sand and 61% in AP-soil. 3.3 to 14.4% of 14C were located in aboveground tree portions. Above-ground distribution of 14C differed considerably between the angiosperm Salix and the gymnosperm Picea. In Salix, nearly half of above-ground-14C was detected in bark-free wood, whereas in Picea older needles contained most of the above-ground-14C (54-69%). TNT was readily transformed in tree tissue. Approximately 80% of 14C was non-extractably bound in roots, stems, wood, and leaves or needles. Only quantitatively less important stem-bark of Salix and Picea and May shoots of Picea showed higher extraction yields (up to 56%). Pulse application of [14C]-TNT provided evidence for the first time that after TNT-exposure, in tree root extracts, no TNT and none of the known metabolites, mono-amino-dinitrotoluenes (ADNT), diaminonitrotoluenes (DANT), trinitrobenzene (TNB) and no dinitrotoluenes (DNTs) were present. Extractable portions of 14C were small and contained at least three unknown metabolites (or groups) for Salix. In Picea, four extractable metabolites (or groups) were detected, where only one metabolite (or group) seemed to be identical for Salix and Picea. All unknown extractables were of a very polar nature. Results of complete TNT-transformation in trees explain some of our previous findings with 'cold analytics', where no TNT and no ADNT-metabolites could be found in tissues of TNT-exposed Salix and Populus clones. It is concluded that 'cold' tissue analysis of tree organs is not suited for quantitative success control of phytoremediation in situ. Both short rotation Salicaceae trees and conifer forests possess a dendroremediation potential for TNT polluted soils. The degradation capacity and the large biomass of adult forest trees with their woody compartments of roots and stems may be utilized for detoxification of soil xenobiotics.Environmental Science and Pollution Research 02/2004; 11(5):331-9. · 2.62 Impact Factor