IgA antibodies to tissue transglutaminase: An effective diagnostic test for celiac disease

From the Department of Pediatrics, University Federico II, Naples, Italy
Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.74). 03/1999; DOI: 10.1016/S0022-3476(99)70410-5

ABSTRACT Objective: Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is the main autoantigen recognized by endomysial antibodies. The aim of this study was to assess sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of IgA and IgG antibodies to tTG in the diagnosis of celiac disease compared with endomysial antibodies. Study design: We established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures to measure IgA and IgG antibodies to tTG in sera from 48 untreated and 33 treated patients with celiac disease and from 63 patients with gastrointestinal disease who were in a control group. Sera from 10 patients with celiac disease were examined at various times after gluten was reintroduced into the patients’ diet. Results: Both IgA and IgG to tTG were significantly (P < .001) higher in serum of untreated patients with celiac disease versus those in the control group; IgA but not IgG was significantly (P < .001) higher in untreated versus treated patients with celiac disease. IgA and IgG antitissue tTG had a diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 92% and 21%, 98% and 97%, and 98% and 83%, respectively. The concordance rate of IgA anti-tTG with IgA antiendomysial antibodies was 95%. In 5 of the 10 patients undergoing gluten challenge, IgA antiendomysium antibodies were detected earlier than IgA anti-tTG antibodies. Conclusions: tTG-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is an effective diagnostic test, although immunofluorescent-based assays are more sensitive, particularly during gluten challenge. (J Pediatr 1999;134:166-71)

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of serological tests in combination with clinical symptoms for diagnosing celiac disease (CD) according to the new proposed European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) criteria. We retrospectively assessed children and adolescents aged 16 months -19 years who were examined for suspicion of CD (n = 345). Evaluation of clinical symptoms and the presence of tissue transglutaminase (anti-TG-IgA) and endomysial antibodies (EMA-IgA) as well as intestinal biopsies was performed in all patients. Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) were not included. Among 345 biopsied children, 213 (62 %) children had anti-TG titers >10 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) and positive EMA antibodies. Ninety-nine (29 %) children also had symptoms suggestive of CD in addition to EMA positivity and elevated titers of anti-TG >10 times the ULN. In patients who were asymptomatic, but positive for EMA, and had anti-TG antibodies >10 times the ULN, the specificity of tests for Marsh 2-3 was only 85 %, while in symptomatic patients with the same antibodies levels, the specificity was 99 %. Conclusion: Our results reveal that intestinal biopsies could be omitted in 28 % of patients when the new ESPGHAN guidelines are applied. Due to high accuracy of serological tests in combination with clinical symptoms for diagnosis of CD, the new guideline seems to be applicable even without the use of HLA testing.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 11/2013; · 1.98 Impact Factor
  • Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2009; 37(7). · 2.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune mediated disease with complex and multifactorial etiology. Gluten intake triggers a composite immune response involving T-cells and B-cells and leading to the secretion of autoantibodies if a genetic predisposition is present. Untreated CD patients show high levels of circulating autoantibodies directed to different auto-antigens present in the intestinal mucosa. The most important auto-antigen is the endomysial enzyme tissue transglutaminase (tTG). Both IgA and IgG antibody isotypes to tTG are known, but only the IgA antibodies demonstrate the highest disease specificity and thus are considered disease biomarkers. Because the pathogenicity and exact tTG binding properties of these autoantibodies are still unclear, the characterization of tTG antigenic domains is a crucial step in understanding CD onset and the autoimmune pathogenesis. Overlapping peptide libraries can be used for epitope mapping of selected protein portions to determine antigenic fragments contributing to the immunological activity and possibly develop innovative peptide-based tools with high specificity and sensitivity for CD. We performed an epitope mapping study to characterize putative linear auto-antigenic epitopes present in the tTG N-terminal portion (1–230). A library of 23 overlapping peptides spanning tTG(1–230) was generated by Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide synthesis and screened by immunoenzymatic assays employing patients' sera. The results indicate that four synthetic peptides, that is, Ac-tTG(1–15)-NH2, Ac-tTG(41–55)-NH2, Ac-tTG(51–65)-NH2, and Ac-tTG(151–165)-NH2, are recognized by IgA autoantibodies circulating in CD patients' sera. These results offer important insight on the nature of the antigen-antibody interaction. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Peptide Science 05/2014; · 1.86 Impact Factor