Infusion of FK506, a specific inhibitor of calcineurin, induces potent tau hyperphosphorylation in mouse brain
ABSTRACT Calcineurin is a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase expressed at high levels in brain. Many electrophysiological and pharmacological findings have shown that calcineurin plays an important role in brain function. FK506 is always used as a specific calcineurin inhibitor in these researches. But these reports did not quantify the calcineurin activity in FK506-treated brain. Here we first investigated the inhibitory effect of FK506 injected into the mouse brain ventricle on CN activity. FK506 reduced calcineurin activity in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting its amount. Injection of 12.5 nmol FK506 also significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of tau at Ser-262 (12E8 site), Ser-198, Ser-199, and/or Ser-202 (Tau-1 site) and Ser-396 and/or Ser-404 (PHF-1 site), without affecting total tau. It is suggested that calcineurin plays an important role in tau phosphorylation, dependently of its activity. Compared with the effects of cyclosporin A, another specific inhibitor of CN in our previous study, we first evaluate that such infusion of FK506 is more effective than that of cyclosporin A on calcineurin inhibition and tau phosphorylation.
Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 10/2011; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.rehab.2011.07.431
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ABSTRACT: AD, a devastating neurodegenerative disorder, is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Patients with AD are characterized by three hallmarks of neuropathology including neuritic plaque deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, and neuronal loss. Growing evidences indicate that dysregulation of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AD. Aberrant RCAN1 expression facilitates neuronal apoptosis and Tau hyperphosphorylation, leading to neuronal loss and neurofibrillary tangle formation. This review aims to describe the recent advances of the regulation of RCAN1 expression and its physiological functions. Moreover, the AD risk factors-induced RCAN1 dysregulation and its role in promoting neuronal loss, synaptic impairments and neurofibrillary tangle formation are summarized. Furthermore, we provide an outlook into the effects of RCAN1 dysregulation on APP processing, Aβ generation and neuritic plaque formation, and the possible underlying mechanisms, as well as the potential of targeting RCAN1 as a new therapeutic approach.Molecular Neurobiology 04/2014; 50(3). DOI:10.1007/s12035-014-8704-y · 5.29 Impact Factor