Effect of morphine on striatal dopamine metabolism and ascorbic acid and uric acid release in freely moving rats
ABSTRACT Recent ex vivo findings have shown that morphine increases dopamine (DA) and xanthine oxidative metabolism and ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation in the rat striatum. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of subcutaneous daily morphine (20 mg/kg) administration on DA, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), AA and uric acid in the striatum of freely moving rats using microdialysis. Dialysates were assayed by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. On the first day, morphine administration caused a significant increase in extracellular DA, DOPAC, HVA, AA and uric acid concentrations over a 3 h period after morphine. In all treated rats (n=7), individual concentrations of DOPAC+HVA were directly correlated with individual AA and uric acid concentrations. Last morphine administration on the 4th day increased DOPAC, HVA, AA and uric acid concentrations but failed to increase those of DA. Individual DOPAC+HVA concentrations were still directly correlated with individual AA and uric acid concentrations. These results suggest that systemic morphine increases both striatal DA release and DA and xanthine oxidative metabolism. Only the former effect undergoes tolerance. The increase in DA oxidative metabolism is highly correlated with that of xanthine. The subsequent enhancement in reactive oxygen species production may account for the increase in extracellular AA.
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ABSTRACT: The field of oxidative stress, free radicals, cellular defense and antioxidants is a burgeoning field of research. An important biomarker of oxidative stress is ascorbate and alterations in ascorbate have been shown to be a reliable measure of oxidative stress mechanisms. The purpose of this pharmacological study was to assess changes in ascorbate in a morphine/ascorbate animal model using novel sensors which selectively detect electrochemical signals for ascorbate, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Studies were also performed to show reversal of morphine-induced effects by the opioid antagonist, naloxone. In vivo studies were modeled after (Enrico et al. 1997, 1998) in which the oxidative biomarker, ascorbate, was reported to compensate for free radicals produced by morphine-induced increases in DA and 5-HT. In vivo studies consisted of inserting the Laurate sensor in ventrolateral nucleus accumbens (vlNAcc), in anesthetized male, Sprague-Dawley rats. In separate studies, laboratory rats were injected with (1) ascorbate, (5-35 mg/kg, ip) or (2) dehydroascorbate (DHA) (20-100 mg/kg, ip). In another study, (3) morphine sulfate (10-20 mg/kg, sc) was injected followed by a single injection of naloxone (5 mg/kg, ip) in the same animal. Results showed that in vlNAcc, (1) neither ascorbate nor DHA injections produced ascorbate release, (2) morphine significantly increased DA and 5-HT release, but did not alter ascorbate release, and (3) naloxone significantly reversed the increased DA and 5-HT release produced by morphine. Moreover, the sensors, N-stearoyl cerebroside and laurate were studied in vitro, in separate studies, in order to assess selective and separate electrochemical detection of ascorbate, DA and 5-HT, neuromolecules involved in oxidative stress mechanisms. In vitro studies consisted of pretreatment of each sensor with a solution of phosphotidylethanolamine (PEA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) which simulates the lipid/protein composition of brain. Each new sensor was tested for stability, sensitivity and selectivity by pipetting graduated increases in concentration of ascorbate, DA and 5-HT into an electrochemical cell containing saline/phosphate buffer. Multiple and repetitive images of electrochemical signals from ascorbate, DA and 5-HT were recorded. Results showed that both sensors produced three well-defined cathodic, selective and separate electrochemical signals for ascorbate, DA and 5-HT at characteristic oxidation potentials. Dopamine and 5-HT were detected at nM concentrations while ascorbate was detected at microM concentrations. In summary, the data show that very low concentrations of ascorbate occurred in vlNAcc since novel sensors detected ascorbate at high concentrations in vitro. The data indicate that little or no change in oxidative stress mechanisms occurred in vlNAcc after morphine or naloxone administration since the oxidative biomarker, ascorbate, was not signifi cantly altered. Thus, oxidative stress mechanisms and novel N-stearoyl cerebroside and laurate sensors, which selectively detect and separate neuromolecules involved in these mechanisms, may be potentially clinically relevant.Journal of Neural Transmission 02/2008; 115(1):7-17. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nutritional status including vitamin A could explain some of the developmental deformities observed in cultivated teleosts, including Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). In the present study we aimed to investigate the transcriptional effect of retinoic acid (RA) on bone related genes using Atlantic cod craniofacial explants tissue cultures. Two different osteoblast specific osteocalcin/bone gla protein isoforms were discovered in cod. Transcription of both isoforms was up-regulated following RA treatment of 65 dph cod lower jaw explants. In contrast, transcripts coding for genes related to bone resorption and osteoclast activity, matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cathepsin K were down-regulated following RA treatment. This could be linked to the decreased transcriptional ratio between receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand rankl and osteoprotegerin observed in the same tissue samples. RA treatment of juvenile explants had no effect on runt-related transcription factor 2 and osterix mRNA levels. However, osterix was significantly down-regulated in 25 dph cod head explants following RA treatment. In situ hybridizations revealed differential spatial distribution of the two isoforms and the predominant expression of cathepsin K in bone surrounding tissues. The present study indicates that RA causes a shift in the balance between osteoclast activity and osteoblast activity in favor of the latter.Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology 10/2011; 161(2):174-84. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More must be learned about metabolic and biochemical alterations that contribute to the development and expression of drug dependence. Experimental opioid administration influences mechanisms and indices of oxidative stress, such as antioxidant compounds and purine metabolism. We examined perturbations of neurotransmitter-related pathways in opioid dependence (OD). In this preliminary study, we used a targeted metabolomics platform to explore whether biochemical changes were associated with OD by comparing OD individuals (n = 14) and non-drug users (n = 10). OD patients undergoing short-term methadone detoxification showed altered oxidation-reduction activity, as confirmed by higher plasma levels of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol and increased GSH/GSSG ratio. OD individuals had also altered purine metabolism, showing increased concentration of guanine and xanthosine, with decreased guanosine, hypoxanthine and hypoxanthine/xanthine and xanthine/xanthosine ratios. Other drug use in addition to opioids was associated with partly different biochemical changes. This is a preliminary investigation using metabolomics and showing multiple peripheral alterations of metabolic pathways in OD. Further studies should explore the metabolic profile of conditions of opioid abuse, withdrawal and long-term abstinence in relation to agonist and antagonist treatment and investigate biochemical signatures of opioid substances and medications.Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 09/2009; 24(8):666-75. · 2.10 Impact Factor