Induced innovation and agricultural development
ABSTRACT Dr Ruttan reviews the five general models in the literature on agricultural development: the frontier, conservation, urban- industrial impact, diffusion and high pay-off input models, and finds them lacking. He outlines a model of agricultural development which treats technical change as endogenous to the development process, rather than as an exogenous factor operating independently of it. This leads to an emphasis on the strong relationship between technological and institutional change and a call for institutional innovation that will result in a more effective realisation of the new technical potential.
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ABSTRACT: The period since the early 1990s has witnessed an explosion of research on the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics. Much of this work was motivated by a perceived gap between advances in agroforestry science and the success of agroforestry-based development programs and projects. Achieving the full promise of agroforestry requires a fundamental understanding of how and why farmers make long-term land-use decisions and applying this knowledge to the design, development, and ‘marketing’ of agroforestry innovations. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature that has developed during the past decade analyzing agroforestry adoption from a variety of perspectives and identifies needed future research. Much progress has been made, especially in using binary choice regression models to assess influences of farm and household characteristics on adoption and in developing ex-ante participatory, on-farm research methods for analyzing the potential adoptability of agroforestry innovations. Additional research-needs that have been identified include developing a better understanding of the role of risk and uncertainty, insights into how and why farmers adapt and modify adopted systems, factors influencing the intensity of adoption, village-level and spatial analyses of adoption, the impacts of disease such as AIDS and malaria on adoption, and the temporal path of adoption.Agroforestry Systems 07/2004; 61-62(1):311-328. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The enormity of the African refugee problem underscores the importance of resettlement issues in land use planning. Efforts to resettle subsistenceoriented agricultural populations have often come into conflict with host or in-place land uses as competition for scarce resources leads to land degradation, violence and the failure of resettlement schemes. The success of refugee resettlement will depend to a large extent on the degree to which host and refugee land use patterns become integrated or reconciled. The majority of African refugee populations reside on the Horn and in the Sahel, where arid and semi-arid ecologies predominate and pastoralism is a major form of land use. This study considers a resettlement design that integrates refugee agricultural land use patterns with those of the host pastoralist land use in the context of the frequent droughts that visit the area. Given the magnitude of dislocation problems on the continent, successful resettlement will play an important role in African agriculture and development.Land Use Policy 01/1993; · 3.13 Impact Factor
Staff Paper Series
STAFF PAPER P71-1JANUARY 1971
Induced Innovation and Agricultural Development
Yujiro Hayami and Vernon W. Ruttan
Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics
University of Minnesota
Institute of Agriculture
St. Paul, Minnesota 55101
Staff Paper P71-I
Induced Innovation and AgriculturalDevelopment
Vernon W. Ruttan
Staff Papers are published without
of Agricultural and Applied Economics.
paperis based was supported by grants to the University
Economic Development Center and Agricultural
the Ford Foundation
Micro Aspects of Develo~ment
Campus) on November19-20, 1970.
formal review within
The research on which this
Station by theExperiment
and the U.S. Agency for
at a conference
The paper was presented
at the University
Induced Innovationin AgriculturalDevelopment<
Yujiro Hayami and Vernon W. Ruttan~~~
There has been a sharp transition in economic: doctrine with respect
to the relative contribution of agriculturaland industrial development
to national economic growth during recent decades.
There has been a
shift away from an earlier “industrialfundamentalism”
to an emphasis
on the significanceof growth in agriculturalproduction and productivity
for the total developmentprocess.
the process of agriculturaldevelopmentitself has,
with few exceptions,
remained outside the concern of most development
economists. Both technical change and institutional change have been
treated as exogenous to their systems,
In our view technical change representsan essential element in the
growth of agricultural productionand productivityfrom the very
beginning of the developmentprocess.
The process of technical change
in agriculturecan best be understood as a dynamic responseto the
resource endowments and economic environment in which a country finds
itself at the beginningof the modernization process.
The design of
a successful agricultural developmentstrategy in each country or region
involves a unique pattern of technical change and productivitygrowth
in responseto the particularset of factor prices which reflect the
economicimplications of resource endowments and resource accumulation
in each society.It also involves a complex pattern of institutional
evolutionin order to create an economic and social environment
conducive to the effective response by individuals, privatefirms and
public agencies to the new technical opportunities.
Any attempt to develop a model of agriculturaldevelopmentin which
technical change is treated as endogenousto the development process
rather than as an exogenousfactor that operatesindependently of
other developmentprocesses must start with the recognition that there
are multiple paths of technologicaldevelopment.
developed to facilitate the substitutionof relativelyabundant
(hence cheap) factors for relatively scare (hence expensive) factors
in the economy.
A second considerationin any attempt to develop an adequate model
of agriculturaldevelopmentis explicit recognitionof the role of the
public sector in the agriculturaldevelopmentprocess.
agricultural science and technology represent a necessarycondition
for releasing the constraintson agriculturalproductionimposed by
inelastic factor supplies.
Yet technicalinnovations are among the
more difficult products to producein a country in the early stages of
Institutionization of the process by which a
continuousstream of new agricultural technologyis made available to
a nation’s farmers is particularlydifficultto achieve.In most
coqntries which have been successfulin achieving rapid rates of
technical progress “socialization”of agriculturalresearch has been
deliberatelyemployed as an instrument of modernizationin agriculture.
The modernizationprocess has involved the development of both experi-
ment station and industrial capacity capable of producing the biological
(OT biologicaland chemical) and mechanical (or engineering and
mechanical)innovations adapted to factor supply conditions.
In this paper we extend the theory of “induced innovation” to
include the process by which public sector investment in agricultural
research, in the adaptationand diffusion of agriculturaltechnology,
and in the institutional infrastructure that is supportive of agricultural
is directed toward releasing the constraintson agricultural
productionimposed by the factors characterized by a relativelyinelastic
We then elaborate an operational model, suitable for testi.ng
the “induced innovation” hypothesis. Finally the model is tested
against the long term agricultural development experienceof Japan and
the United States.