Induced innovation and agricultural development

Vernon R. Ruttan is President of the Agricultural Development Council, 1290 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10019 and Room 705, RELC Int. House, 30 Orange Grove Road, Singapore 10.
Food Policy (Impact Factor: 1.8). 08/1977; 2(3):196-216. DOI: 10.1016/0306-9192(77)90080-X

ABSTRACT Dr Ruttan reviews the five general models in the literature on agricultural development: the frontier, conservation, urban- industrial impact, diffusion and high pay-off input models, and finds them lacking. He outlines a model of agricultural development which treats technical change as endogenous to the development process, rather than as an exogenous factor operating independently of it. This leads to an emphasis on the strong relationship between technological and institutional change and a call for institutional innovation that will result in a more effective realisation of the new technical potential.

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    BioScience 06/2012; 62(6):603-606. DOI:10.1525/bio.2012.62.6.11 · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Basically , the scarcity of land relative to labor and/or capital induces investment in additional labor/capital inputs to maintain or increase agricultural production. By the 1970s induced innovation theory was applied to a wide range of new agricultural technologies to explain the impact of population and markets on the diffusion of innovations in both subsistence and commercial agriculture (Binswanger and Ruttan 1978; Ruttan and Hayami 1984; Pingali et al. 1987 "
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    ABSTRACT: The period since the early 1990s has witnessed an explosion of research on the adoption of agroforestry innovations in the tropics. Much of this work was motivated by a perceived gap between advances in agroforestry science and the success of agroforestry-based development programs and projects. Achieving the full promise of agroforestry requires a fundamental understanding of how and why farmers make long-term land-use decisions and applying this knowledge to the design, development, and ‘marketing’ of agroforestry innovations. This paper reviews the theoretical and empirical literature that has developed during the past decade analyzing agroforestry adoption from a variety of perspectives and identifies needed future research. Much progress has been made, especially in using binary choice regression models to assess influences of farm and household characteristics on adoption and in developing ex-ante participatory, on-farm research methods for analyzing the potential adoptability of agroforestry innovations. Additional research-needs that have been identified include developing a better understanding of the role of risk and uncertainty, insights into how and why farmers adapt and modify adopted systems, factors influencing the intensity of adoption, village-level and spatial analyses of adoption, the impacts of disease such as AIDS and malaria on adoption, and the temporal path of adoption.
    Agroforestry Systems 07/2004; 61-62(1):311-328. DOI:10.1023/B:AGFO.0000029007.85754.70 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    • "a dramatic example of the induced innovation process. . . " (Ruttan, 1977, p. 210). The sources of innovation for endogenous growth will vary with the type of enterprise. "
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    ABSTRACT: . Much of past thinking about economic development started with a traditional lowincome rural agricultural economy losing its workforce to higher-paying jobs in the new, modern industrial sector. Hirschman and others proposed an alternative strategy for economic development in his unbalanced growth theory that focused on an industry rather than an entire sector or two of a developing nation's economy. Hirschman not only highlighted, but emphasized in significant ways, the role and importance of the private sector in economic development. Putnam and others take the social capital approach to economic development. We offer still another way of thinking about economic development strategy that builds on the activities within a local labor market area and its institutions for constructively engaging an active, public-spirited local citizenry. The local labor market approach contrasts with the earlier ways of thinking about economic development by its attention to local institutions in buil...
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