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Osseous metaplasia of the colon in an ulcerative proctosigmoiditis

Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
Endoscopy (Impact Factor: 5.2). 04/2012; 44 Suppl 2 UCTN:E76-7. DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1291602
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is a heritable disorder of connective tissue characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and postnatal formation of ectopic bone. Although the disorder was first described more than 300 years ago, the genetic defect and pathophysiology remain unknown. Bone morphogenetic proteins are potent bone-inducing morphogens that participate in the developmental organization of the skeleton, and increased production of one or more of these proteins has been proposed as the cause of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. We studied lymphoblastoid cell lines established from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells of patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and fibroblast-like cell lines derived from lesional and nonlesional tissue. We used Northern blot analysis and ribonuclease protection assays to measure the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) of bone morphogenetic proteins 1 to 7 and immunohistochemical analysis to examine protein expression. Among the bone morphogenetic proteins and mRNAs examined, only bone morphogenetic protein 4 and its mRNA were present in increased levels in cells derived from an early fibroproliferative lesion in a patient with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 mRNA was expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines from 26 of 32 patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva but from only 1 of 12 normal subjects (P<0.001). Bone morphogenetic protein 4 and its mRNA were detected in the lymphoblastoid cell lines from a man with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and his three affected children (two girls and a boy), but not from the children's unaffected mother. No other bone morphogenetic proteins were detected. Overexpression of a potent bone-inducing morphogen (bone morphogenetic protein 4) in lymphocytes is associated with the disabling ectopic osteogenesis of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.
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    ABSTRACT: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a congenital disorder of progressive and widespread postnatal ossification of soft tissues and is without known effective treatments. Affected individuals harbor conserved mutations in the ACVR1 gene that are thought to cause constitutive activation of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor, activin receptor-like kinase-2 (ALK2). Here we show that intramuscular expression in the mouse of an inducible transgene encoding constitutively active ALK2 (caALK2), resulting from a glutamine to aspartic acid change at amino acid position 207, leads to ectopic endochondral bone formation, joint fusion and functional impairment, thus phenocopying key aspects of human FOP. A selective inhibitor of BMP type I receptor kinases, LDN-193189 (ref. 6), inhibits activation of the BMP signaling effectors SMAD1, SMAD5 and SMAD8 in tissues expressing caALK2 induced by adenovirus specifying Cre (Ad.Cre). This treatment resulted in a reduction in ectopic ossification and functional impairment. In contrast to localized induction of caALK2 by Ad.Cre (which entails inflammation), global postnatal expression of caALK2 (induced without the use of Ad.Cre and thus without inflammation) does not lead to ectopic ossification. However, if in this context an inflammatory stimulus was provided with a control adenovirus, ectopic bone formation was induced. Like LDN-193189, corticosteroid inhibits ossification in Ad.Cre-injected mutant mice, suggesting caALK2 expression and an inflammatory milieu are both required for the development of ectopic ossification in this model. These results support the role of dysregulated ALK2 kinase activity in the pathogenesis of FOP and suggest that small molecule inhibition of BMP type I receptor activity may be useful in treating FOP and heterotopic ossification syndromes associated with excessive BMP signaling.
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