A healthy dietary pattern at midlife is associated with subsequent cognitive performance.
ABSTRACT Few studies have investigated the long-term impact of overall dietary patterns (DP) on cognition. We evaluated the association between empirically derived DP in midlife and cognitive performance 13 y later. Dietary data were based on 24-h dietary records obtained from a subsample of the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant Study. Cognitive performance was assessed via a battery of neuropsychological tests that included verbal fluency, the RI-48 cued recall test, the trail-making test, and forward and backward digit span. Three composite variables, for global cognitive function, verbal memory, and executive functioning, were built. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for baseline characteristics (age, gender, intervention group, education, alcohol and energy intake, number of dietary records, physical activity, BMI, tobacco use, self-reported memory troubles, diabetes, hypertension, and, for women, menopausal status and hormone therapy use), follow-up time, history of cardiovascular disease, and depressive symptoms. Adjusted means ± SEM of composite variables across quartiles (Q4 vs. Q1) of DP were estimated using ANCOVA. A healthy and a traditional DP were identified. In the multivariate model, the healthy pattern was associated with better global cognitive function (50.1 ± 0.7 vs. 48.9 ± 0.7; P-trend = 0.001) and verbal memory (49.7 ± 0.4 vs. 48.7 ± 0.4; P-trend = 0.01). These relationships were stronger in participants scoring below the gender-specific median values for energy intake (<2490 kcal for men and <1810 for women) than in those scoring at or above those values. Adherence to a healthy DP in middle life may help preserve global cognitive function, especially verbal memory, when total energy intake is regulated.
Article: Prevention, Rehabilitation, and Mitigation Strategies of Cognitive Deficits in Aging with HIV: Implications for Practice and Research.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy has given the chance to those living with HIV to keep on living, allowing them the opportunity to age and perhaps age successfully. Yet, there are severe challenges to successful aging with HIV, one of which is cognitive deficits. Nearly half of those with HIV experience cognitive deficits that can interfere with everyday functioning, medical decision making, and quality of life. Given that cognitive deficits develop with more frequency and intensity with increasing age, concerns mount that as people age with HIV, they may experience more severe cognitive deficits. These concerns become especially germane given that by 2015, 50% of those with HIV will be 50 and older, and this older cohort of adults is expected to grow. As such, this paper focuses on the etiologies of such cognitive deficits within the context of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. From this, evidence-based and hypothetical prevention (i.e., cognitive prescriptions), rehabilitation (i.e., speed of processing training), and mitigation (i.e., spaced retrieval method) strategies are reviewed. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited.ISRN nursing. 01/2013; 2013:297173.