Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation identifies novel cancer-related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma.
ABSTRACT Aberrant DNA methylation has been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our aim was to clarify its molecular mechanism and to identify useful biomarkers by screening for DNA methylation in HCC. Methylated CpG island amplification coupled with CpG island microarray (MCAM) analysis was carried out to screen for methylated genes in primary HCC specimens [hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive, n = 4; hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive, n = 5; HBV/HCV-negative, n = 7]. Bisulfite pyrosequencing was used to analyze the methylation of selected genes and long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-1 in HCC tissue (n = 57) and noncancerous liver tissue (n = 50) from HCC patients and in HCC cell lines (n = 10). MCAM analysis identified 332, 342, and 259 genes that were methylated in HBV-positive, HCV-positive, and HBV/HCV-negative HCC tissues, respectively. Among these genes, methylation of KLHL35, PAX5, PENK, and SPDYA was significantly higher in HCC tissue than in noncancerous liver tissue, irrespective of the hepatitis virus status. LINE-1 hypomethylation was also prevalent in HCC and correlated positively with KLHL35 and SPDYA methylation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that methylation of the four genes and LINE-1 strongly discriminated between HCC tissue and noncancerous liver tissue. Our data suggest that aberrant hyper- and hypomethylation may contribute to a common pathogenesis mechanism in HCC. Hypermethylation of KLHL35, PAX, PENK, and SDPYA and hypomethylation of LINE-1 could be useful biomarkers for the detection of HCC.
- SourceAvailable from: Thirumalaisamy P Velavan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem and many studies have underlined the importance of inter individual variability and somatic mutations during the clinical course of HBV infection. In recent years, high-throughput technologies have provided new possibilities to study the genetic basis of many diseases. We reviewed all literature available on genome-wide association studies (GWASs), whole genome, exome and RNA sequencing studies as well as studies on HBV infection and the pathogenesis of related liver disease. Many GWASs conclude that the genetic variants in the HLA region (HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR and MICA), KIF1B, DEPDC5 and PNPLA3 influence HBV infection, its clinical course and the response to hepatitis B vaccination. The next generation sequencing approach provides important clues on the mutational landscape of genes involved in signaling pathways in particular JAK/STAT, Wnt/β-catenin, p53 pathways and multiple chromatin regulator genes that significantly promote hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition, the hotspots of recurrent integrations of HBV-DNA into host chromosomes such as hTERT, PDGF receptor, MLL are involved in pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Additionally, the transitions T > C/A > G, C > T/G > A, C > A/G > T and T > A/A > T remain specific for HCC induced by viral infection and the DNA methylation in the CpG island is proposed as a biomarker for HCC. We have described common mutations in the HBV genome (G1896A, rtM204V, rtM204I) which modulate the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of the liver. Further GWASs in different ethnic groups and additional functional studies are required to warrant the significance of such defined genetic factors. Such findings continue to shape our understanding of the genetic architecture of host–virus interactions and provide new clues and directions in determining genetic markers that modulate HBV infection and related liver diseases. The studies using high-throughput technologies help identifying potential genetic threats however the utility of mutational information can be complex in predicting prognostic significance and shall pose challenges to its clinical implementation.Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research 07/2014; · 6.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. However, the role of epigenetic changes such as aberrant DNA methylation in hepatocarcinogenesis remains largely unclear. In this study, we examined the methylation profiles of 59 HCC patients. Using consensus hierarchical clustering with feature selection, we identified three tumor subgroups based on their methylation profiles and correlated these subgroups with clinicopathological parameters. Interestingly, one tumor subgroup is different from the other 2 subgroups and the methylation profile of this subgroup is the most distinctly different from the non-tumorous liver tissues. Significantly, this subgroup of patients was found to be associated with poor overall as well as disease-free survival. To further understand the pathways modulated by the deregulation of methylation in HCC patients, we integrated data from both the methylation as well as the gene expression profiles of these 59 HCC patients. In these patients, while 4416 CpG sites were differentially methylated between the tumors compared to the adjacent non-tumorous tissues, only 536 of these CpG sites were associated with differences in the expression of their associated genes. Pathway analysis revealed that forty-four percent of the most significant upstream regulators of these 536 genes were involved in inflammation-related NFκB pathway. These data suggest that inflammation via the NFκB pathway play an important role in modulating gene expression of HCC patients through methylation. Overall, our analysis provides an understanding on aberrant methylation profile in HCC patients.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e104158. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic alterations have been identified as a major characteristic in human cancers. Advances in the field of epigenetics have contributed significantly in refining our knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying malignant transformation. DNA methylation and microRNA expression are epigenetic mechanisms that are widely altered in human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the third leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Both DNA methylation and microRNA expression patterns are regulated in developmental stage specific-, cell type specific- and tissue-specific manner. The aberrations are inferred in the maintenance of cancer stem cells and in clonal cell evolution during carcinogenesis. The availability of genome-wide technologies for DNA methylation and microRNA profiling has revolutionized the field of epigenetics and led to the discovery of a number of epigenetically silenced microRNAs in cancerous cells and primary tissues. Dysregulation of these microRNAs affects several key signalling pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis suggesting that modulation of DNA methylation and/or microRNA expression can serve as new therapeutic targets for HCC. Accumulative evidence shows that aberrant DNA methylation of certain microRNA genes is an event specifically found in HCC which correlates with unfavorable outcomes. Therefore, it can potentially serve as a biomarker for detection as well as for prognosis, monitoring and predicting therapeutic responses in HCC.World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 06/2014; 20(24):7894-7913.