Early Developmental Outcome in Children With Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome and Related Anomalies The Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 03/2012; 125(17):2081-91. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.064113
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Survivors of the Norwood procedure may experience neurodevelopmental impairment. Clinical trials to improve outcomes have focused primarily on methods of vital organ support during cardiopulmonary bypass.
In the Single Ventricle Reconstruction trial of the Norwood procedure with modified Blalock-Taussig shunt versus right-ventricle-to-pulmonary-artery shunt, 14-month neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed by use of the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We used multivariable regression to identify risk factors for adverse outcome. Among 373 transplant-free survivors, 321 (86%) returned at age 14.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) months. Mean PDI (74 ± 19) and MDI (89 ± 18) scores were lower than normative means (each P<0.001). Neither PDI nor MDI score was associated with type of Norwood shunt. Independent predictors of lower PDI score (R(2)=26%) were clinical center (P=0.003), birth weight <2.5 kg (P=0.023), longer Norwood hospitalization (P<0.001), and more complications between Norwood procedure discharge and age 12 months (P<0.001). Independent risk factors for lower MDI score (R(2)=34%) included center (P<0.001), birth weight <2.5 kg (P=0.04), genetic syndrome/anomalies (P=0.04), lower maternal education (P=0.04), longer mechanical ventilation after the Norwood procedure (P<0.001), and more complications after Norwood discharge to age 12 months (P<0.001). We found no significant relationship of PDI or MDI score to perfusion type, other aspects of vital organ support (eg, hematocrit, pH strategy), or cardiac anatomy.
Neurodevelopmental impairment in Norwood survivors is more highly associated with innate patient factors and overall morbidity in the first year than with intraoperative management strategies. Improved outcomes are likely to require interventions that occur outside the operating room.
URL: Unique identifier: NCT00115934.


Available from: David C Bellinger, Jun 07, 2015
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated differences in growth between fetuses with and without congenital heart disease (CHD) and tested associations between growth and early childhood neurodevelopment (ND). In this prospective cohort study, fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), transposition of the great arteries (TGA), and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and controls had biparietal diameter (BPD), head (HC) and abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) recorded serially during pregnancy at 18-26 weeks GA (F1), at 27-33 weeks GA (F2), and at 34-40 weeks GA (F3). CHD subjects underwent Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III ND testing at 18 months. Differences between CHD fetuses and controls were assessed using t tests and generalized linear modeling. Correlations between biometry and ND informed regression modeling. We enrolled 41 controls and 68 fetuses with CHD (N = 24 HLHS, N = 21 TGA, N = 23 TOF), 46 of whom had ND scores available. At 18-26 weeks, CHD fetuses were smaller than controls in all biometric parameters. Differences in growth rates were observed for HC, BPD, and AC, but not for FL or EFW. Cognitive score correlated with HC/AC at F2 (r = -0.33, P = 0.04) and mean HC/AC across gestation (r = -0.35, P = 0.03). Language correlated with FL/BPD at F2 (r = 0.34, P = 0.04). In stepwise linear regression, mean HC/AC predicted Cognition (B = -102, P = 0.026, R (2) = 0.13) and FL/BPD at F2 predicted Language score (B = 127, P = 0.03, R (2) = 0.12). Differences in growth between CHD fetuses and controls can be measured early in pregnancy. In CHD fetuses, larger abdominal relative to head circumference is associated with better 18-month neurodevelopment.
    Pediatric Cardiology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00246-015-1132-6 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preterm birth is associated with alteration in corticothalamic development, which underlies poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Our hypothesis was that preterm neonates with CHD would demonstrate abnormal thalamic microstructure when compared to critically ill neonates without CHD. A secondary aim was to identify any association between thalamic microstructural abnormalities and perioperative clinical variables. We compared thalamic DTI measurements in 21 preterm neonates with CHD to two cohorts of neonates without CHD: 28 term and 27 preterm neonates, identified from the same neonatal intensive care unit. Comparison was made with three other selected white matter regions using ROI manual-based measurements. Correlation was made with post-conceptional age and perioperative clinical variables. In preterm neonates with CHD, there were age-related differences in thalamic diffusivity (axial and radial) compared to the preterm and term non-CHD group, in contrast to no differences in anisotropy. Contrary to our hypothesis, abnormal thalamic and optic radiation microstructure was most strongly associated with an elevated first arterial blood gas pO2 and elevated preoperative arterial blood gas pH (p < 0.05). Age-related thalamic microstructural abnormalities were observed in preterm neonates with CHD. Perinatal hyperoxemia and increased perioperative serum pH were associated with abnormal thalamic microstructure in preterm neonates with CHD. This study emphasizes the vulnerability of thalamocortical development in the preterm neonate with CHD.
    Pediatric Cardiology 01/2015; 36(5). DOI:10.1007/s00246-015-1106-8 · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Modulating the stress response and perioperative factors can have a paramount impact on the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who undergo cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. In this single center prospective follow-up study, we evaluated the impact of three different anesthetic techniques on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 19 children who previously underwent congenital cardiac surgery within their 1(st) year of life. Cases were done from May 2011 to December 2013. Children were assessed using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5(th) edition). Multiple regression analysis was used to test different parental and perioperative factors that could significantly predict the different neurodevelopmental outcomes in the entire cohort of patients. When comparing the three groups regarding the major cognitive scores, a high-dose fentanyl (HDF) patients scored significantly higher than the low-dose fentanyl (LDF) + dexmedetomidine (DEX) (LDF + DEX) group in the quantitative reasoning scores (106 ± 22 vs. 82 ± 15 P = 0.046). The bispectral index (BIS) value at the end of surgery for the -LDF group was significantly higher than that in LDF + DEX group (P = 0.011). For the entire cohort, a strong correlation was seen between the standard verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) score and the baseline adrenocorticotropic hormone level, the interleukin-6 level at the end of surgery and the BIS value at the end of the procedure with an R(2) value of 0.67 and P < 0.04. There was an inverse correlation between the cardiac Intensive Care Unit length of stay and the full-scale IQ score (R = 0.4675 and P 0.027). Patients in the HDF group demonstrated overall higher neurodevelopmental scores, although it did not reach statistical significance except in fluid reasoning scores. Our results may point to a possible correlation between blunting the stress response and improvement of the neurodevelopmental outcome.
    01/2015; 9(1):12-8. DOI:10.4103/1658-354X.146255