TACC2 is an androgen-responsive cell cycle regulator promoting androgen-mediated and castration-resistant growth of prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT Despite the existence of effective antiandrogen therapy for prostate cancer, the disease often progresses to castration-resistant states. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the resistance for androgen deprivation in terms of the androgen receptor (AR)-regulated pathways is a requisite to manage castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Using a ChIP-cloning strategy, we identified functional AR binding sites (ARBS) in the genome of prostate cancer cells. We discovered that a centrosome- and microtubule-interacting gene, transforming acidic coiled-coil protein 2 (TACC2), is a novel androgen-regulated gene. We identified a functional AR-binding site (ARBS) including two canonical androgen response elements in the vicinity of TACC2 gene, in which activated hallmarks of histone modification were observed. Androgen-dependent TACC2 induction is regulated by AR, as confirmed by AR knockdown or its pharmacological inhibitor bicalutamide. Using long-term androgen-deprived cells as cellular models of CRPC, we demonstrated that TACC2 is highly expressed and contributes to hormone-refractory proliferation, as small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of TACC2 reduced cell growth and cell cycle progression. By contrast, in TACC2-overexpressing cells, an acceleration of the cell cycle was observed. In vivo tumor formation study of prostate cancer in castrated immunocompromised mice revealed that TACC2 is a tumor-promoting factor. Notably, the clinical significance of TACC2 was demonstrated by a correlation between high TACC2 expression and poor survival rates. Taken together with the critical roles of TACC2 in the cell cycle and the biology of prostate cancer, we infer that the molecule is a potential therapeutic target in CRPC as well as hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Studies indicate that high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), the most common epithelial ovarian carcinoma histotype, originates from the fallopian tube epithelium (FTE). Risk factors for this cancer include reproductive parameters associated with lifetime ovulatory events. Ovulation is an acute inflammatory process during which the FTE is exposed to follicular fluid containing both pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules, such as interleukin-1 (IL1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and cortisol. Repeated exposure to inflammatory cytokines may contribute to transforming events in the FTE, with glucocorticoids exerting a protective effect. The global response of FTE cells to inflammatory cytokines or glucocorticoids has not been investigated. To examine the response of FTE cells and the ability of glucocorticoids to oppose this response, an immortalized human FTE cell line, OE-E6/E7, was treated with IL1β, dexamethasone (DEX), IL1β and DEX, or vehicle and genome-wide gene expression profiling was performed. IL1β altered the expression of 47 genes of which 17 were reversed by DEX. DEX treatment alone altered the expression of 590 genes, whereas combined DEX and IL1β treatment altered the expression of 784 genes. Network and pathway enrichment analysis indicated that many genes altered by DEX are involved in cytokine, chemokine, and cell cycle signaling, including NFκΒ target genes and interacting proteins. Quantitative real time RT-PCR studies validated the gene array data for IL8, IL23A, PI3 and TACC2 in OE-E6/E7 cells. Consistent with the array data, Western blot analysis showed increased levels of PTGS2 protein induced by IL1β that was blocked by DEX. A parallel experiment using primary cultured human FTE cells indicated similar effects on PTGS2, IL8, IL23A, PI3 and TACC2 transcripts. These findings support the hypothesis that pro-inflammatory signaling is induced in FTE cells by inflammatory mediators and raises the possibility that dysregulation of glucocorticoid signaling could contribute to increased risk for HGSOC.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97997. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High-throughput techniques have identified numerous antisense (AS) transcripts and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). However, their significance in cancer biology remains largely unknown. Here, we report an androgen-responsive long ncRNA, CTBP1-AS, located in the AS region of C-terminal binding protein 1 (CTBP1), which is a corepressor for androgen receptor. CTBP1-AS is predominantly localized in the nucleus and its expression is generally upregulated in prostate cancer. CTBP1-AS promotes both hormone-dependent and castration-resistant tumour growth. Mechanistically, CTBP1-AS directly represses CTBP1 expression by recruiting the RNA-binding transcriptional repressor PSF together with histone deacetylases. CTBP1-AS also exhibits global androgen-dependent functions by inhibiting tumour-suppressor genes via the PSF-dependent mechanism thus promoting cell cycle progression. Our findings provide new insights into the functions of ncRNAs that directly contribute to prostate cancer progression.The EMBO Journal 05/2013; · 10.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The transforming acidic coiled-coil containing protein 2 (Tacc2) gene and its paralogs, Tacc1 and Tacc3 encode proteins that are associated with the centrosome and involved in microtubule assembly during the cell cycle. Tacc2 produces several splice variants, which are poorly characterized, especially in the rat. Characterization of the temporal/spatial expression patterns of these isoforms would be useful in understanding their distinct and over-lapping functions. By comparative sequence analyses of Tacc2 in multiple species, we identified a third splice variant in rat, which is much shorter in size (1021 aa) than the longest isoform (2834 aa). This newly identified Tacc2 splice variant (isoform 3) uses a distinct first exon and generates a different Open Reading Frame (ORF). While isoform 3 is expressed predominantly during developmental stages, the long Tacc2 isoform (isoform 1) is distributed mainly in adult tissues. Multiple protein sequence analyses revealed that Tacc2 isoform 3 could be the ancient form, as it is conserved in mammals, birds and amphibians; whereas the long Tacc2 isoforms may have evolved in the mammalian lineage by adding exons towards the 5’ region of the ancient isoform. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.genesis 04/2014; · 2.04 Impact Factor